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Chapter%2011_Solutions_post - CHM 11200 Spring 10 Chapter...

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CHM 11200 Spring 10 Chapter 11 Solutions
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Composition of Solutions Most chemical reactions occur in solution. solvent largest component of solution can be gas, liquid or solid solute(s) smallest component(s) of solution can be gas, liquid or solid 2
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Composition of Solutions 3 NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) HCl (g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) H 2 O( l ) H 2 O( l ) NaOH (s) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O( l )
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Solubility Rules 4
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More About Solutions When a solid substance dissolves in a solvent we say it is soluble. CH 3 CH 2 OH ( l ) CH 3 CH 2 OH (aq) 5 When one liquid “dissolves” in another liquid we say the two liquids are miscible . H 2 O( l ) H 2 O 2 ( l ) H 2 O 2 (aq) H 2 O( l ) Nonelectrolytes retain their molecular structure when dissolved in water.
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Formation of Solutions Ethanol with water Ethanol: Shake 6
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Formation of Solutions Ethanol with water: potential for disorder increases 2200 E is negative (exothermic dissolution) H 2 O and ethanol form hydrogen bonds both with themselves and with each other 7
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Formation of Solutions Break H-bonds & dispersion forces in H 2 O Break dispersion forces & H-bonds in ethanol Make equivalent H-bonds & dispersion forces in the solution. 8
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Formation of Solutions What will happen if we add dichloromethane to water? 9 polar but no potential for H-bonding
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Formation of Solutions Dichloromethane with water Shake 10 polar but no potential for H-bonding
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Formation of Solutions Dichloromethane with water: Potential for disorder increases, but E is unfavorable. (Break strong H ····O, make weak Cl ····O, etc.) 11
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Enthalpy of Solvation 12 substances are soluble; energy is released; EXOTHERMIC
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Enthalpy of Solvation 13 substances are soluble; energy is required; ENDOTHERMIC
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