113LQ8 - Lecture Quiz #8 (5 pts) Hybrid Orbitals CHM...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture Quiz #8 (5 pts) Hybrid Orbitals CHM 113-Dr. Ron Briggs Detach this page as proof of completion and turn in to the box for your Recitation Section. You can keep the remaining pages as a study aide. Name: Recitation Section (circle one): R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 Recitation Table (circle one): H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg CHM 113 Dr. Ron Briggs Hybridization (Ch. 9) 1 Hybrid Orbitals (Ch. 9) Many chemists describe the arrangement of electrons around an atom in a molecule using different terminology than the VSEPR model that weve been using. In this alternate terminology, the electron pairs around the central atom in a molecule are said to reside in a set of orbitals (domains) that are constructed from the usual set of atomic orbitals (s, p, d) for the atom. Recall from Ch. 6 that the shapes of the s, p, and d atomic orbitals look like this: s-orbital p-orbitals d-orbitals CHM 113 Dr. Ron Briggs Hybridization (Ch. 9) 2 These orbitals contain the valence electrons in an atom. A covalent bond is formed when these atomic orbitals overlap. Three possibilities of such overlap are shown below: The extent of this overlap is predicted by quantum mechanics and can be plotted on a potential energy diagram like this one for the H 2 molecule (which results from two hydrogen 1s orbitals overlapping): In this plot, the lowest energy state for the H 2 molecule is when the H atoms are 0.74 Angstroms () apart from each other. Therefore, we can predict that the H 2 bond distance is 0.74 Angstroms. To form new bonds, atomic orbitals mix (hybridize) to form new orbitals. To show how this happens, lets look at an electron box diagram for Be to explain the bonding in the linear molecule BeF 2 . The normal diagram for Be (4 electrons) looks like this: Overlap of (a) two s-orbitals, (b) one s and one p-orbital, and (c) two p-orbitals CHM 113 Dr. Ron Briggs Hybridization (Ch. 9) 3 In the diagram above, we can see that there are no unpaired electrons and the picture is not sufficient to explain how Be is able to form bonds by sharing electrons with another atom. However, if one of the 2s electrons jumps up to the 2p level, the diagram looks like this: Be now has two unpaired electrons and can form two covalent bonds with another atom. If we then hybridize (mix together) the 2s and 2p orbitals, we have two equivalent orbitals:...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2012 for the course CHM 72052 taught by Professor Reilly during the Fall '09 term at ASU.

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113LQ8 - Lecture Quiz #8 (5 pts) Hybrid Orbitals CHM...

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