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Morris_07_final_DVD-ready - CHAPTER 7 Cognition and Mental...

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CHAPTER 7 Cognition and Mental Abilities
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Links to Learning Objectives ENDURING ISSUES IN COGNITION AND MENTAL ABILITIES BUILDING BLOCKS OF THOUGHT Three basic building blocks of thought LANGUAGE, THOUGHT, & CULTURE Cultural influences on thought & language NONHUMAN LANGUAGE & THOUGHT Animal communication & thought PROBLEM SOLVING Interpreting problems Strategy & evaluation DECISION MAKING Compensatory decision making, heuristics, framing, & explaining decisions MULTITASKING INTELLIGENCE & MENTAL ABILITIES Theories of intelligence Intelligence tests Criticisms of intelligence tests HEREDITY, ENVIRONMENT, & INTELLIGENCE Impact of heredity & environment Flynn effect Gender & cultural differences in mental abilities Mental retardation Giftedness CREATIVITY Relationship between creativity & intelligence; measur
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Diversity- Universality Stability-Change Mind-Body Nature-Nurture Person-Situation Enduring Issues How do measures of intelligence and performance vary as a function of expectations and situations?
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Diversity- Universality Stability-Change Mind-Body Nature-Nurture Person-Situation Enduring Issues Do intelligence test scores change over time?
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Diversity- Universality Stability-Change Mind-Body Nature-Nurture Person-Situation Enduring Issues What are the differences and similarities in the ways people process information ?
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The processes whereby we acquire and use knowledge ognition
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Three cognitive processes: Two mental abilities that psychologists have tried to measure: Focus of This Chapter Thinking Thinking Problem Problem Solving Solving Decision Decision Making Making Intelligenc Intelligenc e e Creativity Creativity
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Building Blocks of Thought
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Conce pts Images LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Describe the three basic building blocks of thought and give an example of each. Explain how phonemes, morphemes, and grammar (syntax and semantics) work together to form a language. The three most important building blocks of thought: Languag e Building Blocks of Thought
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Building Blocks of Thought “When you think of a close friend, you may have in mind complex statements about her, such as “I’d like to talk to her soon”…You may also have an image of her – probably her face, but perhaps the sound of her voice as well. Or you may think of your friend by using various concepts or categories such as woman, kind, strong…When we think, we make use of all of these things – language, images, and concepts – often simultaneously.” – Page 217 (Morris & Maisto)
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Flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information anguage
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LANGUAGE Language Basic sounds that make up any language Smallest meaningful units of speech Rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate Rules for combining words to form meaningful phrases, sentences Surface and underlying meanings of words and phrases
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Direction of Movement in Speech Production and Comprehension
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Images Mental representations of sensory experiences Allow us to think about things in nonverbal ways
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