Chapter 7_1

Chapter 7_1 - Chapter 7: Introduction to SQL Jinie Pak...

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Chapter 7: Introduction to SQL Jinie Pak Department of Information Systems UMBC
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Objectives Definition of terms Interpret history and role of SQL Define a database using SQL data definition language Write single table queries using SQL Establish referential integrity using SQL Discuss SQL:1999 and SQL:200n standards
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Our RoadMap Requirement Analysis Conceptual Design Logical Design Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Where are we?
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SQL Pronunciation: “S-Q-L” or “Sequel” Stands for: S tructured Q uery L anguage It is the language we use to create, manipulate, and maintain a relational database SQL rules The de facto standard in the database world Official standard accepted by ANSI and ISO
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SQL: History SEQUEL: Structured English Query Language 1970, Relational Model, IBM (E.F. Codd) 1974, System R prototype and SEQUEL 23 pages research report from IBM San Jose Labs SEQUEL 2: 1976 SQL: 1979 IBM’s first commercial product: SQL/DS in 81 DB2 followed in 1983 But someone was earlier… Relational Software, 1979
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SQL: History SQL-86: The first ANSI standard version A cleaned-up version of DB2 SQL SQL-89: Added embedded SQL 150 pages SQL-92 (SQL2): Most popularly in use today 500 pages SQL-99: establishes Core-level conformance
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SQL: 4th Generation Language 3rd generation language: C, Java, VB, … “procedural” language Programmer has to tell the machine what to do, and how to do it 4th generation language: SQL, LISP… “declarative” language Only need to tell the machine what to do
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Purpose of SQL Standard Specify syntax/semantics for data definition and manipulation Define data structures Enable portability Specify minimal (level 1) and complete (level 2) standards Allow for later growth/enhancement to standard
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Benefits of a Standardized Relational Language Reduced training costs Productivity Application portability Application longevity Reduced dependence on a single vendor Cross-system communication
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SQL Environment Catalog A set of schemas that constitute the description of a database Schema The structure that contains descriptions of objects created by a user (base tables, views, constraints) Data Definition Language (DDL) Commands that define a database, including creating, altering, and dropping tables and establishing constraints Data Manipulation Language (DML) Commands that maintain and query a database Data Control Language (DCL)
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Figure 7-1 A simplified schematic of a typical SQL environment, as described by the SQL: 200n standard
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Three Types of SQL Data Definition Language (DDL) Define the database. CREATE, ALTER, or DROP a base TABLE or VIEW.
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2012 for the course IS 410 taught by Professor Chen,z during the Fall '08 term at UMBC.

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Chapter 7_1 - Chapter 7: Introduction to SQL Jinie Pak...

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