1-2_programming - Abstract Today we'll outline the aims for...

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Unformatted text preview: Abstract Today, we'll outline the aims for this course and present a rough course plan. We'll introduce the basic notion of programming and give examples of areas in which software is critical to our civilization. Finally, we'll present the simplest possible C++ program and outline how it can be made into running code. Stroustrup/Programming 1 Overview Course aims and outline Programming "Hello, world!" Compilation Stroustrup/Programming 2 This is a course In Programming For beginners who want to become professionals i.e., people who can produce systems that others will use Though not (necessarily) geniuses Though do need sleep occasionally, and take a normal course load who are assumed to be bright who are willing to work hard Using the C++ programming language Stroustrup/Programming 3 Not! A Washout course "if you can get into the science/engineering parts of a university, you can handle this course" The C++ programming language who want to become language lawyers A course in For students We try not to get bogged down in technical obscurities We try not to spoon feed who are assumed to be a bit dim and fairly lazy Using Some untested software development methodologies and a lot of unnecessarily long words Stroustrup/Programming 4 The Aims Teach/learn Fundamental programming concepts Key useful techniques Basic Standard C++ facilities Write small colloquial C++ programs Read much larger programs Learn the basics of many other languages by yourself Proceed with an "advanced" C++ programming course An expert programmer A C++ language expert An expert user of advanced libraries Stroustrup/Programming 5 After the course, you'll be able to After the course, you will not (yet) be The Means Lectures Attend every one Read a chapter ahead (about one per lecture) Read the chapter again after each lecture Feedback is welcome (typos, suggestions, etc.) Notes/Chapters Stroustrup/Programming 6 The Means (Cont.) Work Review questions in chapters Review "Terms" in Chapters Drills Always do the drills Always do the drills before the exercises Exercises Course specific Projects That's where the most fun and the best learning takes place Quizzes Exams Stroustrup/Programming 7 Cooperate on Learning Except for the work you hand in as individual contributions, we strongly encourage you to collaborate and help each other If in doubt if a collaboration is legitimate: ask! Don't claim to have written code that you copied from others Don't give anyone else your code (to hand in for a grade) When you rely on the work of others, explicitly list all of your sources i.e. give credit to those who did the work Don't study alone when you don't have to Form study groups Do help each other (without plagiarizing) Go to your TA's office hours Go prepared with questions The only stupid questions are the ones you wanted to ask but didn't Stroustrup/Programming 8 Why C++ ? You can't learn to program without a programming language The purpose of a programming language is to allow you to express your ideas in code C++ is the language that most directly allows you to express ideas from the largest number of application areas C++ is the most widely used language in engineering areas http://www.research.att.com/~bs/applications.html Stroustrup/Programming 9 Why C++ ? C++ is precisely and comprehensively defined by an ISO standard And that standard is almost universally accepted C++ is available on almost all kinds of computers Programming concepts that you learn using C++ can be used fairly directly in other languages Including C, Java, C#, and (less directly) Fortran Stroustrup/Programming 10 Rough course outline Part I: The basics Types, variables, strings, console I/O, computations, errors, vectors functions, source files, classes File I/O, I/O streams Graphical output Graphical User Interface Free store, pointers, and arrays Lists, maps, sorting and searching, vectors, templates The STL Software ideals and history Text processing, numerics, embedded systems programming, testing, C, Stroustrup/Programming 11 etc. Part II: Input and Output Part III: Data structures and algorithms Part IV: Broadening the view Rough course outline (Cont.) Throughout Program design and development techniques C++ language features Background and related fields, topics, and languages C++ language summary C++ standard library summary Index (extensive) Glossary (short) Note: Appendices Stroustrup/Programming 12 Promises Detail: We will try to explain every construct used in this course in sufficient detail for real understanding There is no "magic" Utility: We will try to explain only useful concepts, constructs, and techniques We will not try to explain every obscure detail Completeness: The concepts, constructs, and techniques can be used in combination to construct useful programs There are, of course, many useful concepts, constructs, and techniques beyond what is taught here Stroustrup/Programming 13 More Promises Realism: the concepts, constructs, and techniques can be used to build "industrial strength" programs i.e., they have been used to ... Simplicity: The examples used are among the simplest realistic ones that illustrate the concepts, constructs, and techniques Your exercises and projects will provide more complex examples Scalability: The concepts, constructs, and techniques can be used to construct large, reliable, and efficient programs i.e., they have been used to ... Stroustrup/Programming 14 Feedback request Please mail questions and constructive comments to [email protected]_institution Your feedback will be most appreciated On style, contents, detail, examples, clarity, conceptual problems, exercises, missing information, depth, etc. Book support website (www.stroustrup.com/Programming) Local course support website Stroustrup/Programming 15 Why programming? Our civilization runs on software Most engineering activities involve software Note: most programs do not run on things that look like a PC a screen, a keyboard, a box under the table Stroustrup/Programming 16 Ships Design Construction Management Monitoring Engine Hull design Pumps 17 Stroustrup/Programming Aircraft Communication Control Display Signal processing "Gadget" control Monitoring 18 Stroustrup/Programming Phones Voice quality User interfaces Billing Mobility Stroustrup/Programming Switching Reliability Provisioning Images 19 Energy Control Monitoring Analysis Design Communications Visualization Manufacturing Stroustrup/Programming 20 PC/workstation There's a lot more to computing than games, word processing, browsing, and spreadsheets! Stroustrup/Programming 21 Where is C++ Used? Just about everywhere Mars rovers, animation, graphics, Photoshop, GUI, OS, compilers, slides, chip design, chip manufacturing, semiconductor tools, etc. See www.research.att/~bs/applications.html Stroustrup/Programming 22 A first program just the guts... // ... int main() { cout << "Hello, world!\n"; return 0; } // quotes delimit a string literal // NOTE: "smart" quotes " " will cause compiler problems. // so make sure your quotes are of the style " " // \n is a notation for a new line // main() is where a C++ program starts // output the 13 characters Hello, world! // followed by a new line // return a value indicating success Stroustrup/Programming 23 A first program complete // a first program: #include "../../std_lib_facilities.h" // get the library facilities needed for now int main() { cout << "Hello, world!\n"; return 0; } // note the semicolons; they terminate statements // curly brackets { ... } group statements into a block // main( ) is a function that takes no arguments ( ) // and returns an int (integer value) to indicate success or failure Stroustrup/Programming 24 // main() is where a C++ program starts // output the 13 characters Hello, world! // followed by a new line // return a value indicating success A second program // modified for Windows console mode: #include "../../std_lib_facilities.h" // get the facilities for this course int main() { cout << "Hello, world\n"; keep_window_open(); return 0; } // without keep_window_open() the output window will be closed immediately // before you have a chance to read the output (on Visual C++ 2003) // main() is where a C++ program starts // output the 13 characters hello, world! // followed by a new line // wait for a keystroke // return a value indicating success Stroustrup/Programming 25 Hello, world! "Hello world" is a very important program Its purpose is to help you get used to your tools Compiler Program development environment Program execution environment After you get it to work, please make a few mistakes to see how the tools respond; for example Type in the program carefully Forget the header Forget to terminate the string Misspell return (e.g. retrun) Forget a semicolon Forget { or } ... Stroustrup/Programming 26 Hello world It's almost all "boiler plate" Only cout << "Hello, world!\n" directly does anything Most of our code, and most of the systems we use simply exist to make some other code elegant and/or efficient "real world" non-software analogies abound That's normal "Boiler plate," that is, notation, libraries, and other support is what makes our code simple, comprehensible, trustworthy, and efficient. Would you rather write 1,000,000 lines of machine code? This implies that we should not just "get things done"; we should take great care that things are done elegantly, correctly, and in ways that ease the creation of more/other software: Style Matters! Stroustrup/Programming 27 Compilation and linking C++ source code C++ compiler Object code Executable program linker You write C++ source code Library Object code Source code is (in principle) human readable Object code is simple enough for a computer to "understand" E.g. input/output libraries, operating system code, and windowing code E.g. a .exe file on windows or an a.out file on Unix Stroustrup/Programming 28 The compiler translates what you wrote into object code (sometimes called machine code) The linker links your code to system code needed to execute The result is an executable program So what is programming? Conventional definitions Telling a very fast moron exactly what to do A plan for solving a problem on a computer Specifying the order of a program execution But modern programs often involve millions of lines of code And manipulation of data is central Definition from another domain (academia) A ... program is an organized and directed accumulation of resources to accomplish specific ... objectives ... Good, but no mention of actually doing anything The definition we'll use Specifying the structure and behavior of a program, and testing that the program performs its task correctly and with acceptable performance Never forget to check that "it" works Software == one or more programs Stroustrup/Programming 29 Programming Programming is fundamentally simple Just state what the machine is to do We want "the machine" to do complex things So why is programming hard? And computers are nitpicking, unforgiving, dumb beasts So we don't always know the implications of what we want When you can program a task, you understand it When you program, you spend significant time trying to understand the task you want to automate If you are just practical, you produce non-scalable unmaintainable hacks If you are just theoretical, you produce toys Stroustrup/Programming The world is more complex than we'd like to believe "Programming is understanding" Programming is part practical, part theory 30 The next lecture Will talk about types, values, variables, declarations, simple input and output, very simple computations, and type safety. Stroustrup/Programming 31 ...
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