Chapter 4 - Aqueous Reactions Sp09-3

Chapter 4 - Aqueous Reactions Sp09-3 - Chapter 4: Aqueous...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4: Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Chem 1411 Dr. McAdams Spring 2009 Solutions: Homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. The solvent is present in greatest abundance. All other substances are solutes . Dissociation When an ionic substance dissolves in water, the solvent pulls the individual ions from the crystal and solvates them. This process is called dissociation . Electrolytes Substances that dissociate into ions when dissolved in waterconduct electricity. A nonelectrolyte may dissolve in water, but it does not dissociate into ions when it does sodoes not conduct electricity. Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Soluble ionic compounds tend to be electrolytes. Molecular compounds tend to be nonelectrolytes, except for acids and bases. Electrolytes A strong electrolyte dissociates completely when dissolved in water. Strong acids (Table 4.2 p. 132) Strong bases (Table 4.2 p. 132) A weak electrolyte only dissociates partially when dissolved in water. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/esm/esm_brown_chemistry_10/ch04/StrongandWeakElectrolytes.html Solubility Guidelines (Table 4.1) Precipitation Reactions When one mixes ions that form compounds that are insoluble (as could be predicted by the solubility guidelines), a precipitate is formed. 2KI( aq ) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) PbI 2 ( s ) + 2KNO 3 ( aq ) http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/esm/esm_brown_chemistry_10/ch04/PrecipitationReactions.html AgNO 3 ( aq ) + KCl ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq ) Metathesis (Exchange) Reactions Metathesis comes from a Greek word that means to transpose It appears the ions in the reactant compounds exchange, or transpose, ions Ag NO 3 ( aq ) + K Cl ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq ) Ag NO 3 ( aq ) + K Cl ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq ) Solution Chemistry It is helpful to pay attention to exactly what species are present in a reaction mixture (i.e., solid, liquid, gas, aqueous solution). If we are to understand reactivity, we must be aware of just what is changing during the course of a reaction. Molecular Equation The molecular equation lists the reactants and products in their molecular form. AgNO 3 ( aq ) + KCl ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + KNO 3 ( aq ) Ionic Equation In the ionic equation all strong electrolytes (strong acids, strong bases, and soluble ionic salts) are dissociated into their ions. This more accurately reflects the species that are found in the reaction mixture. Ag + ( aq ) + NO 3- ( aq ) + K + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) AgCl ( s ) + K + ( aq ) + NO 3- ( aq ) Net Ionic Equation To form the net ionic equation, cross out anything that does not change from the left side of the equation to the right....
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2012 for the course CSCE 3510 taught by Professor Unt during the Spring '12 term at North Texas.

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Chapter 4 - Aqueous Reactions Sp09-3 - Chapter 4: Aqueous...

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