Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry Sp08

Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry Sp08 - Chapter 3 Stoichiometry...

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Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations CHEM 1411 Dr. McAdams Spring 2008
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Law of Conservation of Mass “In all the operations of art and nature, nothing is created; an equal amount of matter exists both before and after the experiment …Upon this principle, the whole art of performing chemical experiments depends.” --Antoine Lavoisier, 1789 Except he said it in French: http://histsciences.univ-paris1.fr/i-corpus/lavoisier/page-facsim Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and His Wife , by Jacques-Louis David (1788)
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Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction: Rearrangement of atoms to form new or different compounds Examples: Respiration: body converts oxygen and glucose to carbon dioxide Photosynthesis: plants use energy from sunlight to convert CO 2 to O 2 and glucose Rusting/Tarnishing: metals are oxidized to create a metal oxide or metal sulfide. Combustion: A hydrocarbon is burned in O 2 to produce CO 2 and H 2 O. Fermentation: Microbes convert glucose to alcohol
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Chemical Equations Chemical equations describe what happens in a chemical reactions Hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O Hydrogen and oxygen are reactants Water is the product Note: “ ” is like an equal sign because both sides of the equation have the same number of each type of atom http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/esm/esm_brown_chemistry_10/ch03/FormationofWater.html
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Chemical Equations Concise representations of chemical reactions
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Reactants appear on the left side of the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Products appear on the right side of the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation The states of the reactants and products are written in parentheses to the right of each compound. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Coefficients are inserted to balance the equation. CH 4 ( g ) + 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) + 2 H 2 O ( g )
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Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule Coefficients tell the number of molecules
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Reaction Types
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2012 for the course CSCE 3510 taught by Professor Unt during the Spring '12 term at North Texas.

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Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry Sp08 - Chapter 3 Stoichiometry...

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