0618447962_ch04 - 4 Chemical Reactions Beakers with...

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123 Chemical Reactions C hemical reactions are the heart of chemistry. Some reactions, such as those accompanying a forest Fre or the explosion of dynamite, are quite dramatic. Others are much less obvious, although all chemical reactions must involve detectable change. A chemical reaction involves a change from reactant substances to product substances, and the product substances will have physical and chemi- cal properties different from those of the reactants. ±igure 4.1 shows an experimenter adding a colorless solution of potassium iodide, KI, to a colorless solution of lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO 3 ) 2 .What you see is the for- mation of a cloud of bright yellow crystals where the two solutions have come into contact, clear evidence of a chemical reaction. The bright yellow crystals are lead(II) iodide, PbI 2 ,one of the reaction products. We call a solid that forms during a chem- ical reaction in solution a precipitate; the reaction is a precipitation reaction. In this chapter, we will discuss the major types of chemical reactions, including precipitation reactions. Some of the most important reactions we will describe involve ions in aqueous (water) solution.Therefore, we will Frst look at these ions and see how we represent by chemical equations the reactions involving ions in aqueous solution. Some questions we will answer are: What is the evidence for ions in solution? How do we write chemical equations for reactions involving ions? How can we clas- sify and describe the many reactions we observe so that we can begin to understand them? What is the quantitative description of solutions and reactions in solution? CONTENTS Ions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules 4.2 Molecular and Ionic Equations Types of Chemical Reactions 4.3 Precipitation Reactions 4.4 Acid–Base Reactions 4.5 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 4.6 Balancing Simple Oxidation–Reduction Equations Working with Solutions 4.7 Molar Concentration 4.8 Diluting Solutions Quantitative Analysis 4.9 Gravimetric Analysis 4.10 Volumetric Analysis Beakers with precipitates of lead(II) iodide and mercury(II) iodide. 4
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124 CHAPTER 4 Chemical Reactions Ions in Aqueous Solution You probably have heard that you should not operate electrical equipment while stand- ing in water. And you may have read a murder mystery in which the victim was elec- trocuted when an electrical appliance “accidentally” fell into his or her bath water. Actually, if the water were truly pure, the person would be safe from electrocution, because pure water is a nonconductor of electricity. Bath water or water as it flows from the faucet, however, is a solution of water with small amounts of dissolved sub- stances in it, and these dissolved substances make the solution an electrical conduc- tor. This allows an electric current to flow from an electrical appliance to the human body. Let us look at the nature of such solutions.
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0618447962_ch04 - 4 Chemical Reactions Beakers with...

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