Important Terms (from the prompt)
Pay close attention to how the writing prompt is phrased. It is very important to focus on the
exact assigned task and address all parts of the writing prompt. If you address what you are being
asked, you increase your chances of earning a better score.
Here are some terms to look for
along with brief definitions:
: Requires you to put the author's argument in your own words. You want to keep
this as brief as possible by
limiting the summary to only 1 paragraph
Describe, Explain, Discuss:
Beyond summary, these terms require you to analyze, to go beyond
what is written to
it is written. Effective description, explanation, and discussion are
objective and impersonal, rather than subjective. Furthermore, they employ specific, direct,
More subjective than objective analysis, evaluation requires judgment and assessment
based on reasoning, and evidence. Evaluating an argument goes beyond declaring whether or not
you agree with it. You are required to assess how its strengths and weaknesses contribute its
convincingness. Pay Attention to how the writer responds to potential opposition.
Strategies are moves or devices that help build and support arguments. Commonly
used strategies include examples, statistical support, appeals to the emotions of the reader
(pathos), author’scredibility (ethos), analogies and comparisons, irony, refutations of opposing
arguments, and quotations from experts and famous sources. Stylistic devices such as repetition,
alliteration, and metaphor can also be characterized as strategies.
The way a piece of writing develops; how is it built?
Premise and Assumption:
Treated as synonyms in this assignment, premises and assumptions
are the principles, beliefs, and values upon which arguments rest. Premises and assumptions can
be explicit or implicit (implied or suggested) in an argument. They are effective to the extent
they ae shared by the reader, thus forming "common ground."