Independence1800-25

Independence1800-25 - Modern Latin America Independence...

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    Modern Latin America Independence Movements   1800-1825
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    Key Questions 1. What sparked independence movements  throughout Latin America between 1800- 1825? 2. Who were the major players and ideas to  inspire such movements?
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    Key Terms 1. Bourbon Reforms 6. Haciendas 2. Creoles 7. Ingenios 3. Peninsulares 8. Indigenista 4. Mestizos 5. Fueros In groups of three or four, find the meaning of  these terms and why they are important.
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    Key People 1. Tupac Amaru 6. Toussaint Louverture 2. Charles IV 7. José de San Martín 3. Napoleon 8. Antonio José de Sucre 4. Miguel Hidalgo 9. Tiradentes 5. Simón Bolívar 10. Dom Pedro I In your same groups, find out where these  people are from and why they are important.
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    Key Ideas 1. American Revolution, 1776-83 “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” 2. French Revolution, 1789 “Liberté, Fraternité, Egalité” 3. Haitian Revolution, 1791 Slaves of African descent, led by Toussaint Louverture,  overthrow the French elites and gain their independence.  4. The Age of Reason Philosophers question the “divine rights” of the Church and  Monarchies. (John Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, Kant,  etc.)
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    Colonial Problems Under the Bourbon Reforms of Charles III and  Charles IV of Spain, a “second conquest of  America” -- “a bureaucratic conquest” -- was  implemented. 72% of colonial jobs were granted  to Peninsulares -- Spain-born elites -- rather than  to Creole elites. However, Creoles were tolerant of the Bourbon Reforms for awhile since they feared  the majority of the colonial population:  Indigenous peoples, Afro-Hispanic slaves, and  mixed race Mestizos.
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    Bourbon Economic Reforms Bourbon Reforms were primarily economic in  nature.  Essentially, Spain wanted more money  from its American colonies to fight a war with  England. Interestingly, the economic policy was  called  comercio libre  (‘free commerce’), which  raised taxes, created Spanish monopolies, and  controlled trade within the colonies.
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    Bourbon Church Reforms Ironically, because of the Age of Reason, the  Spanish King Charles III began to revoke the  power of the Catholic Church in the colonies,  which had been a strong political entity ever since  the “first conquest of the Americas.” Colonial  educators were expelled, esp. the Jesuits, who  were fundamental to colonial education.  Traditional festivities of the Spanish colonies,  such as The Day of the Dead (Mexico), were  viewed as fanatical and “un-Spanish.” Many  Creole Clergy were radicalized.
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Independence1800-25 - Modern Latin America Independence...

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