learning and memory

learning and memory - CHAPTER 3 LEARNING AND MEMORY CHAPTER...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES When students finish this chapter they should understand why: It’s important for marketers to understand how consumers learn about products and services. Conditioning results in learning. Learned associations can generalize to other things, and why this is important to marketers. There is a difference between classical and instrrumental conditioning. We learn by observing others’ behaviors. Memory systems work. The other products we associate with an individual product influence how we will remember it. Products help us to retrieve memories from our past. Marketers measure our memories about products and ads. CHAPTER SUMMARY Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior that is caused by experience. Learning can occur through simple associations between a stimulus and a response or via a complex series of cognitive activities. Learning is an ongoing process. It is useful in any study of consumer behavior to explore behavioral learning theories in order to gain insight into how consumers learn. Behavioral learning theories assume that learning occurs as a result of responses to external events. Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that naturally elicits a response (an unconditioned stimulus) is paired with another stimulus that does 85 C H A P T E R 3 LEARNING AND MEMORY
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Section 2: Consumers as Individuals not initially elicit this response. Over time, the second stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) comes to elicit the response as well. Several experiments that demonstrate this conditioning are discussed in this chapter. Through this discussion it is found that a conditioned response can also extend to other, similar stimuli in a process known as stimulus generalization. This process is the basis for such marketing strategies as licensing and family branding, where a consumer’s positive associations with a product are transferred to other contexts. The opposite effect is achieved by masked branding (where the manufacturer wishes to disguise the product’s true origin). Another view of behavioral learning is that of instrumental or operant conditioning. This form of conditioning occurs as the person learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that result in negative outcomes. Although classical conditioning involves the pairing of two stimuli, instrumental learning conditioning occurs when reinforcement is delivered following a response to a stimulus. It is important to understand how conditioning occurs. Reinforcement is part of the process. Reinforcement is positive if reward is delivered following a response. It is negative if a negative outcome is avoided by not performing a response. Punishment occurs when a response is followed by unpleasant events. Extinction of the behavior will occur if reinforcement is no longer needed. A third theory is called
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 23

learning and memory - CHAPTER 3 LEARNING AND MEMORY CHAPTER...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online