lecture 5 (3) - Mental retardation Demographics The...

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Mental retardation Demographics The prevalence of mental retardation in North America is a subject of heated debate. It is thought to be between 1%–3% depending upon the population, methods of assessment, and criteria of assessment that are used. Many people believe that the actual prevalence is probably closer to 1%, and that the 3% figure is based on misleading mortality rates; cases that are diagnosed in early infancy; and the instability of the diagnosis across the age span. If the 1% figure is accepted, however, it means that 2.5 million mentally retarded people reside in the United States. The three most common causes of mental retardation, accounting for about 30% of cases, are Down syndrome, fragile X, and fetal alcohol syndrome. Males are more likely than females to have MR in a 1.5:1 ratio. Causes and symptoms Low IQ scores and limitations in adaptive skills are the hallmarks of mental retardation. Aggression, self-injury, and mood disorders are sometimes associated with the disability. The
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lecture 5 (3) - Mental retardation Demographics The...

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