Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Atmosphere and Surface Energy...

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Chapter 4: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Study Guide Figure 4.1 pg 90, Figure 4.12 pg 99 are very helpful Insolation Input: Insolation is the single energy input driving the Earth-atmosphere system Decreases poleward from 25 ° latitude in both Northern and Southern hemispheres Scattering (Diffuse radiation): Gas molecules redirect radiation, changing the direction of the light’s movement without altering its wavelengths . Scattering describes this phenomenon and represents 7% of Earth’s reflectivity Rayleigh’s principle: The shorter the wavelength, the greater the scattering; and the longer the wavelength, the lesser the scattering . The sky is blue because the shorter wavelengths of visible light - the blues and violets - scatter the most and dominate the lower atmosphere. There are more blue than violet wavelengths in sunlight, a blue sky prevails. The angle of the Sun’s rays determines the thickness of atmosphere they must pass through; direct rays experience less scattering and absorption Diffuse Radiation is the downward component of scattered incoming insolation from clouds and the atmosphere Refraction: The bending effect on electromagnetic waves that occurs when insolation enters the atmosphere or another medium; from virtually empty space into atmospheric gases, or from air into water An example is a mirage , an image that appears near the horizon where light waves are refracted by layers of air at different temperatures on a hot day Adds 8 minutes of daylight Albedo and Reflection: A portion of arriving energy bounces directly back into space without being absorbed or performing any work is reflection . Albedo
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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Atmosphere and Surface Energy...

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