Exam 2 Study Guide
I’ve tried to include everything that was covered; however, there may be some inadvertent omissions.
in lecture will be fair game.
If you’re not sure, just ask (me) or email.
Be able to diagram early embryonic development from zygote to the gastrula stage including the germ layers (be
able to use the following terms: cleavage, blastula, gastulation, metamorphosis)
Understand the hypothesis for the origin of animal from flagellated protist
What’s the role of
genes in animal diversity
Be able to diagram and understand the advantages of body plans for Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, and
Compare and contrast the early development in protostomes and deuterstomes (look at figure 32.9 for some
Know important characteristics in each phylum including echinoderms and crustaceans (ie Cnidaria – diploblastic,
Define the following: ostia, osculum, spongocoel, radial canals, choanocytes and amoebocytes.
asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid body types of sponges.
What are the characteristics of an endoparasite?
Know the various types of parasites discussed in lecture and lab. Be prepared to discuss how they’re acquired,
disease they cause, where they’re found geographically and within its host (intermediate and final); and any main
disease conditions (
Ascaris, Necator, Trichinella, Wuchereria, Enterobius, Dracunculus
Schistosoma, Clonorchis, Onchocera, Diroflilaria).
Briefly describe asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid body types of sponges.
What are major characteristics of Molluscs that distinguish it from other phyla? Members of this large and diverse
phylum have impacted humans in many ways. Explain this statement.
What are important features distinguishing features of arthropods?
Briefly explain the difference between complete and incomplete metamorphosis.
Include a brief discussion about
ecdysis, ecdysone, juvenile hormone and prothoracotropic hormone and how they’re involved in metamorphosis.
Onychophorans have been regarded by some biologists as a “missing link” between annelids and arthropods.