Exam 3 Review Ch13-18

Exam 3 Review Ch13-18 - Chap 13 Exam Review FINAL(Chap...

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Exam Review FINAL (Chap 13-18) Chap 13… Motivation- set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal Needs- the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being Extrinsic rewards - tangible and visible to others and are given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks Intrinsic rewards - the natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake Equity theory - states that people will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly Inputs- contributions employees make to the organization Outcomes- what employees receive in exchange for their contributions to the organization Referents- are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly Outcome/Input (O/I) Ratio- employee’s perception of how the rewards received from the organization compare with the employees contributions to that organization Under reward- occurs when you are getting fewer outcomes relative to inputs compared to your co-workers Over reward- occurs when you are getting more outcomes to inputs then your co-workers Distributive justice- the degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated Procedural justice- the fairness of the procedures used to reward allocation decisions Expectancy theory: people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance which will lead to good rewards
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Valence- the attractiveness or desirability of various rewards or outcomes Expectancy- the relationship between effort and performance Instrumentality- the relationship between perceived performance and rewards Reinforcement theory: says that behavior is a function of its consequences, that behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently then those behaviors followed by negative consequences will occur less frequently Reinforcement- process of changing behavior by changing consequences that follow behavior Reinforcement contingencies- the cause and effect relationships between the performance of specific behaviors and specific consequences Schedule of reinforcement- Positive reinforcement- strengthens behavior by following behaviors with desirable consequences the set of rules regarding reinforcement contingencies such as which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow, and the schedule by which the consequences will be delivered Negative reinforcement- strengthens behavior by withholding an unpleasant consequence when employees perform a specific behavior Punishment- weakens behavior by following it when undesirable consequences Extinction- is a strategy where positive consequence is no longer allowed to follow a previously reinforced behavior Continuous reinforcement schedules- a consequence follows every
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Exam 3 Review Ch13-18 - Chap 13 Exam Review FINAL(Chap...

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