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Unformatted text preview: speed how far something will go in a certain amount of time velocity tells both the speed and direction acceleration if the velocity is changing in any way (speed or direction) there is acceleration acceleration of gravity denoted by "g", it is the principle that falling objects speed up by 9.8m/s2 (~10) momentum mass x velocity net force / overall force the combined effect of all the individual forces put together mass the amount of matter (in your body) weight describes a force acting on your mass what a scale measures free-fall falling without any resistance to slow you down weightless when you are in a state of free-fall and your mass is not tied to anything and therefore the scale would read "zero" even though you still have mass astrophysics applies physical laws discovered on earth to phenomena throughout the cosmos newton's first law an object moves at constant velocity if there is no net force acting upon it newton's second law force = mass x acceleration (F = ma) newton's third law for any force, there is always an equal and opposite reaction force conservation laws laws that reflect deeper aspects of nature conservation of momentum the total momentum of the colliding objects is conserved angular momentum a special type of momentum that deals with objects going in circles or curves angular momentum = m x v x r m = earth's mass v = its speed (velocity) r - radius of orbit law of the conservation of angular momentum an object's angular momentum cannot change unless it transfers angular momentum to or from another object law of conservation of energy energy can be transferred from one object to another or transformed from one type to another, but the total amount of energy is always conserved energy what makes matter move kinetic energy energy of motion radiative energy energy carried by light potential energy energy that is stored, and might later be converted into kinetic, radiative, gravitational, or chemical potential energy joule a measure of energy, where one calorie = 4184 joules thermal energy the collective kinetic energy of the many individual particles (atoms, molecules)...
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- Spring '08