Lecture 1-3 220 BlckBd(1)

Lecture 1-3 220 BlckBd(1) - Valency and Chemical bonds...

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— Valency and Chemical bonds electronegativity types of chemical bond water — Carbon carbon skeletons isomers — Polymerization and macromolecules monomers and polymers — Biologically important macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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— Valency and Chemical bonds electronegativity types of chemical bond water — Carbon carbon skeletons isomers — Polymerization and macromolecules monomers and polymers — Biologically important macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Introduction to Biochemistry (3 Lectures)
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Figure 4.4 Valences for the major elements of organic molecules
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Figure 2.12 Covalent bonding in four molecules
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Electronegativity Determines the distribution of electrons within a covalent bond Oxygen = 3.5 Nitrogen = 3.0 Sulfur & Carbon = 2.5 Phosphorus & Hydrogen = 2.1
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Electronegativity A nonpolar covalent bond, where the atoms have similar electro-negativities. Electrons are distributed equally between atoms. e.g. C-H A polar covalent bond, where the atoms have dissimilar electro-negativities. Electrons are distributed unequally between atoms. e.g. H-O, C-O, H-N Importance for hydrogen bond formation.
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Figure 2.13 Polar covalent bonds in a water molecule
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Figure 3.1 Hydrogen bonds between water molecules
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Electronegativity A nonpolar covalent bond, where the atoms have similar electro-negativities. Electrons are distributed equally between atoms. e.g. C-H A polar covalent bond, where the atoms have dissimilar electro-negativities. Electrons are distributed unequally between atoms. e.g. H-O, C-O, H-N Importance for hydrogen bond formation. CRITICAL FOR CELLULAR ENERGETICS!
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Changes in the position of electrons in covalent bonds constitute changes in energy status. Electrons in covalent bonds between atoms of equal electronegativity have a greater potential energy than those between atoms with unequal electronegativity. Covalent C — H bonds have greater potential energy than O — H or C — O bonds because the electrons are equidistant between C and H. Electronegativity
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Figure 2.14 Electron transfer and ionic bonding
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Figure 2.17 Molecular shapes due to hybrid orbitals
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— Valency and Chemical bonds electronegativity types of chemical bond water — Carbon carbon skeletons isomers — Polymerization and macromolecules monomers and polymers — Biologically important macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Introduction to Biochemistry
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Figure 4.4 Valences for the major elements of organic molecules
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Figure 4.5 Variations in carbon skeletons
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Figure 4.7 Three types of isomers
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The pharmacological importance of enantiomers
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Figure 4.10 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds
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Table 4.1 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds Figure 4.10 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds
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— Valency and Chemical bonds electronegativity types of chemical bond water — Carbon carbon skeletons isomers — Polymerization and macromolecules monomers and polymers — Biologically important macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Introduction to Biochemistry
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