Exam 1 Lectures Notes

Exam 1 Lectures Notes - I II The Science and Politics of...

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I. The Science and Politics of Human Biology a. Cyril Burt – IQ study i. Studied twins ii. Wanted to refute the idea that humans were born as a blank sheet with no concept of genetic strengths or weaknesses so he forged data that just happened to be mostly right when it was reexamined later b. Hans Spemann i. Nobel prize winner for experimental embryology; why organ systems end up organized the way they are ii. Lector or President of the university when Nazi were in power so he knew political pressure iii. Likens scientists to archaeologists who find pieces and put them together but it is important not to mess with broken edges in order to force things to fit into the way they want them to c. Violence is the 4 th leading cause of death overall in the US d. Allelism in gene for monamine oxidase A contributes to violence e. Worried the 1993 conference would: i. Detract from social causes of violence and only focus on biological ii. Reinforce prejudice that minorities are over-represented among prison inmates because they are genetically predisposed toward violence iii. Encourage preventative measures that would put minority children on drugs so they wouldn’t become violent f. Preconceived notions were unwelcomingly challenged by i. Galileo Gallilei – structure of the universe ii. Darwin – hominid evolution iii. Sigmund Freud, Edward O. Wilson – unconscious motives of human behavior g. Perceptions i. Calvin Coolidge and his wife noticing different things when they saw the chicken promiscuity II. Who is who among the primates a. Mammals: fur, live birth, mammary glands i. Evolved in Cretaceous period (140-65 mya) when dinosaurs dominated ii. Ancestors of eutherian/placental mammals were small shrew-like creatures living lives of timidity and obscurity iii. When dinosaurs were extinct mammals flourished and evolved in a wide range of orders (including primates) b. Primate characteristics i. Originally lived in canopy of tropical forests ii. Flexible hands and feet with free digits and great grasping ability (four hands) iii. Flat fingernails and toenails instead of claws iv. Tendency toward erectness (sitting, standing, leaping, some walking on hind legs) v. Modest Snout, sense of smell and associated brain area reduced relative other mammals vi. Eyes forward-directed and parallel allowing stereoscopic vision vii. Teeth generalized (not specialized for meat or plant); molars with low, rounded cusps allowing omnivory viii. Complex brain with large neocortex (cerebrum) supporting learning and problem solving ix. Long periods of gestation and infancy, intense care for young c. Classical taxonomy: use anatomical, behavioral and biogeographical criteria to organize living things i. Primates, 290 species, many endangered, range of most are limited to tropical and semitropical areas ii. Suborder Anthropoidea (monkeys, apes, and humans) 1. Infraorder a. Platyrrhini (flat nose) nostrils facing outward– new world monkeys b. Catarrhini sharp nose – nostrils facing downward (old world monkeys, apes and
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Exam 1 Lectures Notes - I II The Science and Politics of...

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