Exam 3 Study Guide

Exam 3 Study Guide - HUN1201 Exam III Study Guide Chapter 7...

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HUN1201 Exam III Study Guide Chapter 7 What are the 3 possible fates of glucose in the liver? Phosphorylated and stored, phosphorylated and used by the liver, released for other cells to use, or stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue. Fructose and galactose can either be converted into glucose, or channeled into the glycolysis pathway for energy production. What are the 3 Phases of glucose oxidation? Glycolysis(occurs in the cytosol, anaerobic, six carbon glucose converted into 2 3carbon pyruvates) TCA cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation o What are the starting products, and ending products of each phase? Glycolysis starts with a six carbon glucose, and ends with 2 3 carbon pyruvates. Glucose is phosphorylated to yield glucose 6 phosphate and ADP. Then enzymes turn it into pyruvate. Produces a net of 2 ATP. Oxidative because yields hydrogen, picked up by NAD (niacin) to form the reduced NADH. If not used immediately, pyruvate can be converted back into glucose. In the absence of oxygen, glucose is converted to lactic acid. Occurs when there isn’t a mitochondria or in muscles during high intensity exercise and does not yield ATP, and regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis. When oxygen is present, pyruvate is converted to a acetyl CoA, which occurs in the mitochondria. The CoA comes from the coenzyme pantothenic acid (b vitamin). This pathway generates NADH+H from the niacin coenzyme NAD+. Once pyruvate becomes acetyl CoA, it cannot be returned to glucose. Acetyl CoA can either enter the TCA cycle or go into fatty acid synthesis. So glycolysis starts with glucose and ends with pyruvate, and the transition turns pyruvate into acetyl CoA. The TCA cycle is a continuous circle of 8 metabolic reactions. It is located in the mitochondria. Acetyl CoA enters the cycle, but cannot return to acetyl CoA. Oxaloacetate (from dietary carbs) and other metabolic intermediates within the TCA cycle are necessary for continued functioning of the TCA cycle. Glucose from carbs enters the TCA cycle and is converted to oxaloacetate in order to help further the cycle for other glucose. When acetyl CoA is made, it mixes with oxaloacetate to form 6 carbon citrate. At the end of TCA, 1 GTP, 8 H, and 2 CO2 are produced. From glycolysis and TCA, one molecule of glucose produces 6 CO2, 2 ATP, 2 GTP, and 10 reduced coenzymes. The reduced coenzymes of NADH and FADH2 link the TCA cycle to stage 3 by the electron transport chain. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the electron transport chain. Proteins, called electron carriers accept and donate electrons. Everytime an electron is
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passed to the next carrier, energy is released. NADH and FADH2 are oxidized, and their electrons are sent to O2 to create H2O. The energy released from making the H2O is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP. Then the ATP can exit the mitochondria for use by the rest of the cell. The complete process started with glucose and ended with the
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Exam 3 Study Guide - HUN1201 Exam III Study Guide Chapter 7...

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