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Exam 4 Study Guide

Exam 4 Study Guide - Session 4 Study Guide Chapter 10 1...

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Session 4 Study Guide: Chapter 10: 1. What are antioxidants? How do they work? Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells from the damage caused by oxidation. They work against oxidation. Antioxidant vitamins work by donating their electron or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce the damage caused by oxidation. Minerals work as cofactors within enzymes to battle oxidation, along with phytochemicals. Antioxidants include vitamins E, C, and A, beta-carotine, selenium, copper, iron, zinc, and manganese. 2. Know the process of oxidation and reduction. The loss of electrons is called oxidation, because it is fueled by oxygen. In most exchange reactions, two atoms with unpaired electrons immediately pair up, making newly stabilized molecules, but in rare cases, atoms with unpaired electrons in their outermost shell remain unpaired. Such atoms are highly unstable and are called free radicals. When an oxygen molecule becomes a free radical, it is specifically referred to as a reactive oxygen species (ROS). If you were to think of paired elctrons as a married couple, a free radical would be an extremely seductive outsider, In an attempt to stabilize itself, a free radical will steal an electron from stable compounds, in turn generating more unstable free radicals. One of the most significant sites of free radical damage is the cell
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