Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Chapter 1: 1. Explain the...

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Chapter 1: 1. Explain the different types of nutrients. a. Organic vs. inorganic Organic has a carbon (carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins) while inorganic does not (water, minerals). b. Macronutrient vs. micronutrient Macronutrients give energy (carbs, lipids, proteins) and micronutrients help the release of energy (vitamins, minerals, water) c. Fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins Fat soluble: A D E K Water soluble: C B d. Energy yielding nutrients – kcal/g for each Carbs: 4 kcal/g Protein: 4 kcal/g Fat: 9 kcal/g *Alcohol: 7 kcal/g i. Know their major functions in the body Carbs are the primary source of fuel for the human body, particularly for neurologic functioning and physical exercise. They are composed of chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids are another important source of energy for the body at low intensity work and at rest, and are largely insoluble in water. They include triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. They are composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but have less O and H2O than carbs, making them more energy efficient. Triglycerides are composed of a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid molecules. Phospholipids contain phosphate. Cholesterol is formed in the liver and other body tissues. Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are composed of amino acids, and can be used for energy but shouldn’t be. They are used for building new cells and tissues, maintaining the structure and strength of bone, repair damaged structures, and assist in regulating metabolism and fluid balance. 2. Be able to calculate energy contributions of nutrients. Ex) 6g protein, 32g carbs, 10g fat 6g * 4kcal/g = 24 kcal from protein = 10% 32g * 4kcal/g = 128 kcal from carbs = 53% 10g * 9kcal/g = 90 kcal from fat = 37% Total = 242 kcal 3. Explain the components of the DRI. a. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Supports 50% of the healthy population in supporting a specific function in the body, and helps define the RDA. b. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Supports 98% of the healthy population in sufficient daily quantities of nutrients.
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c. Adequate Intake (AI) AI is used when there isn’t enough information to find an EAR, so it’s an average daily amount of a nutrient consumed. d. Tolerable Upper Limit Intake (UL) Maximum amount of a nutrient one can take safely and harmful if surpassed. e. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) Average daily energy requirement to maintain good energy balance and health by height, weight, age, gender, and physical activity. f. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) Recommended nutrient levels to reduce risk of chronic diseases (10-35% protein, 20-35% fat, 45-65% carbs) Chapter 2: 1. What are the different components of healthful diet? A healthful diet must be adequate, moderate, varied/diverse, and balanced. It
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Final Exam Study Guide - Chapter 1: 1. Explain the...

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