1. Explain the different types of nutrients.
a. Organic vs. inorganic
Organic has a carbon (carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins) while inorganic does not
b. Macronutrient vs. micronutrient
Macronutrients give energy (carbs, lipids, proteins) and micronutrients help the
release of energy (vitamins, minerals, water)
c. Fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins
Fat soluble: A D E K
Water soluble: C B
d. Energy yielding nutrients – kcal/g for each
Carbs: 4 kcal/g
Protein: 4 kcal/g
Fat: 9 kcal/g
*Alcohol: 7 kcal/g
Know their major functions in the body
Carbs are the primary source of fuel for the human body, particularly for
neurologic functioning and physical exercise. They are composed of
chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids are another important source of energy for the body at low intensity
work and at rest, and are largely insoluble in water. They include
triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. They are composed of mainly
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but have less O and H2O than carbs,
making them more energy efficient. Triglycerides are composed of a
glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid molecules. Phospholipids
contain phosphate. Cholesterol is formed in the liver and other body
Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. They are
composed of amino acids, and can be used for energy but shouldn’t be.
They are used for building new cells and tissues, maintaining the structure
and strength of bone, repair damaged structures, and assist in regulating
metabolism and fluid balance.
2. Be able to calculate energy contributions of nutrients.
Ex) 6g protein, 32g carbs, 10g fat
6g * 4kcal/g = 24 kcal from protein = 10%
32g * 4kcal/g = 128 kcal from carbs = 53%
10g * 9kcal/g = 90 kcal from fat = 37%
Total = 242 kcal
3. Explain the components of the DRI.
a. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Supports 50% of the healthy population in supporting a specific function in the
body, and helps define the RDA.
b. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Supports 98% of the healthy population in sufficient daily quantities of nutrients.