MSE - Natural Sciences Tripos Part I B MATERIALS SCIENCE...

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Unformatted text preview: Natural Sciences Tripos Part I B MATERIALS SCIENCE Course A: Phase Transformations Dr E.R. Wallach Michaelmas Term 201 1-1 2 I B AH1 Course A: Phase Transformations AH1 [email protected] 2011-12 INTRODUCTION Improving metallic materials is a vital activity at the leading edge of science and technology. Metals and their alloys have offered unrivalled combinations of properties and reliability over many centuries, generally at affordable costs. They are versatile because subtle changes in their composition (alloying) or microstructure can cause significant variations in their properties, e.g. the strengths of commercial steels range from as low as 50 MPa to up to 5500 MPa. It is possible to specify and obtain metals with very specific properties and so metals continue to be used in many different applications despite the increased competition from other classes of material such as polymers, ceramics and composites. Hence an understanding of the development of microstructures in metals and alloys is essential for materials scientists. Course A builds on the coverage of metals and alloys in Part IA. Whereas Part IA dealt mainly with the thermodynamic aspects, kinetics are included and emphasised in this course in the treatment of phenomena such as diffusion, solidification and solid-state transformations. Objectives At the end of this course you should understand: - kinetics of transformations in materials by considering diffusion in terms of mechanisms, rate equations and the effects of microstructure and alloy composition; - how grain structures in cast materials arise, how the distribution of solute in liquids affects the microstructures and concentration profiles in solidified products, simple analysis of heat-flow in castings, the relative advantages of different commercial casting processes, microstructural evolution in cast irons and aluminium cast alloys; - nature of grain boundaries, the processes of recovery, recrystallisation and grain growth in cold-worked metals, the effects of alloy additions on the kinetics of these processes; - mechanisms by which precipitation occurs in two-phase systems including the importance of metastable phases, precipitate free zones, precipitate coarsening, real alloy systems based on aluminium alloys and nickel-base superalloys; - combination of diffusion controlled and diffusional transformations in steels leading to the wide range of commercial steels and different mechanisms by which properties can be optimised; - sustainability issues based on life cycle analyses. Dendrites in water (left) and in a Cu-P cast alloy (right). AH2 Course A: Phase Transformations AH2 [email protected] 2011-12 CONTENTS Introduction 1 Contents 2 Resources 3 Guide to Symbols 5 1. Diffusion 7 1.1 Introduction 7 1.2 Atomistic Approaches to Diffusion 8 1.3 Continuum Approaches to Diffusion 10 1.4 Diffusion in Metallic Alloys 15 1.5 Diffusion and Microstructure 17 1.6 Thermodynamics of Diffusion 20 1.7 Diffusion in Polymers 1....
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Alexander during the Spring '11 term at alamo.edu.

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MSE - Natural Sciences Tripos Part I B MATERIALS SCIENCE...

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