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psych450exam1 - Lecture 2 19:22 omnivore chimpanzee closest...

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Lecture 2 19:22 - omnivore – chimpanzee closest living relative to humans - vegetarian - gorilla - fruit eater – orangutan chose fruit over living socially with others - humans have only been on planet for about 5 million years - earth came to be, life started on earth (3.5-4 billion years ago) as soon as it was possible (cells, bacteria), crisis on earth (almost entirely froze over) only hot vents in oceans remained, thaw came, new life set in motion everything we know today amphibians, reptiles, dinosaurs, etc. - asteroid crashed into earth and ended era of dinosaurs and created opportunity for small mammals to thrive - life begins in Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic - Paleozoic reptiles, bony fish, vertebrates, invertebrates, primordial life - Mesozoic placental mammals, insectivores - Cenozoic Paleocene (Prosmian) – 65 million years ago Eocene (monkey) – 54 million years ago Oligocene (apes) – 38 million years ago Milocene (new world monkey) – 26 million years ago Pilocene (human/ape) – 7 million years ago
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- placenta signifies anatomical relationship between mother and offspring Taxonomy (systematics) and Phylogeny - taxonomy: naming, classification of animals - phylogeny: tree, branching of relationships between animals - a good taxonomy should reflect phylogeny - Carolus Linnaeus – 1758 Systema Naturae already had Kingdom, Class, and Order (including Primates) put animals that appeared similar closer together and those that appeared very different further away from one another 100 years later Darwin started to explain why evolution explained this taxonomy - Kingdom: Animalia subkingdom: Metazoan phylum: Chordata (elongated nervous system; backbone) subphylum: Vertebrata class: Mammals sublass: Theria infraclass: Eutheria order: Primates other orders in this group: rodents, horses, etc. - binomial nomenclature (2 names)
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genus – always begins with a capital letter species – several within a genus – always begins with a lower case letter every primate has both a common and scientific name for humans: Homo (genus) sapiens (species) earlier humans: Homo erectus time on earth where there were up to 3 different species of humans coexisting Chimpanzee – Pan troglodytes Orangutan – Pongo pygmaeus; Pongo abelii Gorilla – Gorilla gorilla; Gorilla berengei what is a primate? - St. George Mivart (1873) highly developed brain orbits surrounded by bone (bony socket where eyes are) ball and socket joints (hips and shoulders) pentadactyl – 5 fingers typically 36 or 32 teeth – humans have 32 (without wisdom teeth have 28), ancestral mammals had 44 2-1-3-3 or 2-1-2-3 (dental formula) incisors, canine, premolar, molar Order Primates - Suborder Prosimii - Suborder Antrhopoidea (more like humans): new world monkey (south America), old world monkey (Africa and Asia), apes and humans
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- humans have more in common with a monkey than a monkey has in common with a lemur - phylogenetic tree Prosimian – Human - Paleocene Eocene Oligocene Miocene Pliocene Pleistocene - Ida – 47 million year old transitional prosimian/anthropoid fossil from Germany (Darwinius masillae)
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