psych450exam2

psych450exam2 - Ecology 18:45 - what traits are most...

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Ecology 18:45 - what traits are most beneficial for survival - evolution happens through populations based on survival of the fittest who makes it to adulthood to reproduce environment is the cause of evolution - distribution habitat carrying capacity – in some parts of the world there are 15 species that live in the same forest; others have only 1-2 species in a single forest niche specialization insectivores sapivores frugivores folivores opportunistic omnivores sympatric (living in the same forest)/allopatric (live in different forests – displace) “no complete competitors can co-exist” - distribution live primarily in the equatorial zone – 80% do go somewhat north and south of the equator 20 ° north/south very narrow to very wide distribution
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rhesus monkeys and baboons have wide distributions cotton-top tamarin very narrow distribution (only northern Columbia) uakari – very narrow golden-lion – very narrow – only SE Brazil squirrel monkeys found throughout the Amazon wide distribution leads to different species, different characteristics - habitiat rainforest squirrel monkeys uakari – banks of the Amazon deciduous seasonal forest temperate woodland seasonal breeders montane forest – mountainous mountain gorilla monkey in China probably humans pushed them up grassland savannah (woodland mosaic – desert) no ground-living monkeys in S. America in Africa, baboons have gone to Ethiopia and crossed into Yemen winter – snow monkeys in Japan - primate extremophiles
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overcoming the challenges of: cold and winter dryness and lack of water and trees high altitude and mountains limited food sources some exceptions sifaka in Madagascar – live on rocks “tsingy” – where one cannot walk barefoot - nocturnal or diurnal activity ancestral primate – 70 million years ago was nocturnal (like modern day galago) majority of prosimians are nocturnal, except on Madagascar (bigger lemurs) NW, OW, apes all diurnal tarsier and owl monkey went back into the night - niche insectivore sapivore frugivore seed dispersers - eats fruit, swallows seeds, spread seeds seed predators – swallows seeds and destroys them orangutan – gave up social life not enough food to go around if they have babies every year
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folivore – hard choice for primate to make hard to get nutrient value and extraction abundance toxins, alkaloids – trees try to protect themselves something in them tells them that they need to eat a different leaf medicinal plants – some trees can be used as drugs opportunistic omnivores – baboons, chimps kill other animals others may stumble across birds eggs, frog, lizard chimp adds meat to diet – major food source is other monkeys (colobus) kill and then share with others in the hunting party or other females like a wolf pack to hunt – jumping from tree to tree chasing other monkeys capuchin use tools (like stones) to crack nuts open - Primate field and ecological research – George Schaller UW zoology grad student 1
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psych450exam2 - Ecology 18:45 - what traits are most...

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