Zoo470exam1 - Developmental Biology Intro What is it? how...

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Developmental Biology – Intro What is it? how do parts become different - tools and model organisms are central to rise of modern developmental biology - epigenesis vs. preformation – chicken and egg, which comes first? - epigenesis – complexity of an organism that arises through the interaction of simpler parts - preformation – hypothesis that all organs were developed in embryo in miniature forms - differentiation – process by which different properties are given on parts of the embryo at diff times and specific locations; specialized structures arise - morphogenesis – how form arises (building the body) - pattern formation – how diff part become highly ordered spatially - central dogma: DNA strand (template) transcription mRNA translation protein Big Ideas review from video - fate mapping (Vogt) – a cell’s ancestry is sometimes crucial for its differentiation and behavior, and we need to know that ancestry in detail to interpret “disruption” experiments - germ layers - ectoderm – outer, forms epidermis and neural tissue - mesoderm – middle, forms muscle, blood, notochord, somites, etc - endoderm – inner, forms gut, many organ systems - organizer (Spemann/Mangold) – sends signals to surrounding tissues, but “remembers” its own fate when placed in a new envt - induction – process by which one cell or tissue (inducer) sends a signal to a second cell or tissue (induced) specific and reproducible change in differentiation what experiments tell us - sufficiency – when a group of cells (or molecule) are added to a cell, embryo, or tissue, gives the ability to differentiate in a particular way - does NOT mean it is necessary – if a cell or molecule is sufficient but not necessary, it indicates functional redundancy (Bill Gates vs. the lottery) - necessity – when a group of cells (or molecule) are removed from a cell, embryo, or tissue, loses the ability to differentiate in a particular way - does NOT mean it is sufficient – if something is necessary but not sufficient, it indicates that it acts together with other essential cells/molecules (air and water) - specification – extent to which a cell will differentiate normally when placed into a new surrounding - autonomous – differentiation occurs as it would in the intact embryo - mosaic dvlpt in mollusks, “to thine own self be true” – early decisions, reproducible divisions - involves localized determinants – ascidians - conditional – differentiation depends on its local envt (ex. Hans Driesch and sea urchins) - late decisions, variable divisions - associated with regulative development modern approaches - model systems – keys to unlocking the mechanisms of differentiation - “you can learn a lot about a Mercedes by studying a Toyota” - cellular control of development – Judith Kimble “developmental biology is cell biology over time” - molecular and genetic analysis of development – studying genes, their function and regulation (ex. homeotic genes – new body parts)
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course ZOOLOGY 470 taught by Professor Hardin during the Spring '12 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Zoo470exam1 - Developmental Biology Intro What is it? how...

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