chem - Chapter 1 - kinetic-molecular theory of matter:...

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Chapter 1 - kinetic-molecular theory of matter: helps interpret the properties of solids, liquids, and gases. All matter consists of extremely tiny particles (atoms, molecules, ions) that are in constant motion - increasing temp corresponds to faster and faster motions of atoms and molecules - solution: homogenous mixture of water and dissolved substance - heterogeneous mixture: a mixture n which the uneven texture of the material can be detected - homogenous mixture: consists of two or more substances in the same phase - density = mass/volume - extensive properties: depend on amount of substance present; mass, volume, amount of heat obtained - intensive properties: do not depend on amount of substance; density, melting point - physical change: identity of a substance is preserved even though state or size and shape may have changed - chemical change: change in which one ore more substances (reactants) are transformed into one or more different substances (products) - 1nm=1x10 -9 m pm=1x10 -12 m - 1L = 1000cm 3 =1000mL=0.001m 3 1mL=0.001L=1cm 3 - 1kg=1000g 1g=1000mg - precision: how well several determinations of the same quantity agree - accuracy: agreement of a measurement with the accepted value of the quantity - experimental error = experimentally determined value – accepted value - percent error = error in measurement/accepted value X 100 - standard deviation = square root of the sum of the squares of the deviations for each measurement from the average divided by one less than the number of measurements - Å = 1x10 -10 m Chapter 2 - all atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus - atomic number: number of protons in the nucleus of an element (given symbol Z) - mass number: sum of the number of protons and neutrons for an atom (given symbol A) - isotopes: atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers - percent abundance = number of atoms of a given isotope/total number of atoms of all isotopes of that element x 100% - atomic weight: average mass of a representative sample of ions - atomic weight = (%abundance isotope 1/100)(mass of isotope 1) + (%abundance isotope 2/100)(mass of isotope 2) +… - atomic mass is usually closer to the mass of the most abundant isotope or isotopes - ionic compounds: consist of ions, atoms or groups of atoms that bear a positive or negative electric charge - molecular compounds: consist of discrete molecules at the particulate level - cations: positively charged ion anions: negatively charged ion - Coulomb’s law: Force of attraction = k [(n + e)(n - e)/d 2 ] - molar mass: quantity in grams numerically equal to its atomic weight moles x grams/1 mol = grams grams x 1 mol/grams = moles - percent composition %A gramsA xmolA %B gramsB xmolB find mole ratio xmolA/xmolB formula: A x B y Chapter 3 - product-favored reactions: reactions in which reactants are completely or largely converted to products at equilibrium - reactant-favored reactions: conversion of only a small amount of the reactants to products - exchange reactions: reactions in which the ions of the reactants change partners
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course CHEMISTRY 104 taught by Professor Fredrickson during the Spring '11 term at Wisconsin.

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chem - Chapter 1 - kinetic-molecular theory of matter:...

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