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Unformatted text preview: epithelia- sheets of cells connected by specialized junctions (gap = cell-cell comm.; tight = prevent passage between cells)- protective barrier, absorption or diffusion, all glands of body derived from epithelium- simple one cell layer, diffusion and absorption- stratified more than one cell layer, barrier function- squamos = flat; cuboidal cubes; columnar = taller than they are wide- simple squamos = air sacs of lungs, blood vessels (specific name endothelium)- stratified squamos = oral cavity, outer layer of skin- simple columnar = microvilli, single celled exocrine glands- pseudostratified columnar = ciliated, lines nasal cavity and trachea- transitional = special type located in bladder so cells dont leak out connective tissue- cells (fibroblasts, fat/adipose cells, macrophages, mast cells); fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular); ground substance (water, sugar, calcium salts, protein/carb complexes)- fibroblasts = most common cell type, synthesize and secrete fibers and ground substance- fat/adipose cells = fat storage; impt for energy- macrophages = engulf foreign matter- mast cells = near blood vessels, contain heparin (preventing blood clotting) and histamine (makes blood vessels leaky)- collagen fibers = major fiber type, positioned parallel to lines of stress/force placed on tissue- elastic fibers = elastic, present in abundance in some ligaments- loose areolar connective tissue = contains all cells and fiber types- dense regular connective tissue = collagen fibers running parallel to each other- blood is a form of connective tissue - cartilage chondrocyte (live in small spaces called lacunae), fibers and ground substance made by chondroblasts- hyaline, elastic, fibrocartliage skin- protection, temperature regulation, hydroegulation (urea excreted), source of vitamin D, sensory reception- epidermis stratified squamous epithelium keratinized- cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans/dendritic cells (macrophages), merkel cells (sensory)- stratum basale germinative layer- keratinocytes (stem cells, proliferating, more keratinized as them move to surface); melanocytes (produce melanin, form umbrella over basal layer)- highly variable layers: stratums spinosum, granulosum, lucidum- stratum corneum keratinized superficial layer- dermis connective tissue, contains all cell and fiber types, leather (holds 5% of total blood volume)- papillary (stratum papillarosum) superficial layer; 25% thickness- reticular (stratum reticularosum) deep layer, 75% thickness, collagen fibers (aligned parallel to stresses put on skin)- langers lines make incisions parallel to prevent gaping- hypodermis: subcutaneous fascia, fatty layer beneath the skin- all skin appendages derived from epidermis basal layer- nail, hair and hair follicles, sweat glands bone and skeletal tissues- extracellular matrix of bone and cartilage is calcified and has a rigid structure...
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- Fall '08