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anatomytest1 - epithelia sheets of cells connected by...

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epithelia - sheets of cells connected by specialized junctions (gap = cell-cell comm.; tight = prevent passage between cells) - protective barrier, absorption or diffusion, all glands of body derived from epithelium - simple – one cell layer, diffusion and absorption - stratified – more than one cell layer, “barrier” function - squamos = flat; cuboidal – cubes; columnar = taller than they are wide - simple squamos = air sacs of lungs, blood vessels (specific name endothelium) - stratified squamos = oral cavity, outer layer of skin - simple columnar = microvilli, single celled exocrine glands - pseudostratified columnar = ciliated, lines nasal cavity and trachea - transitional = special type located in bladder so cells don’t leak out connective tissue - cells (fibroblasts, fat/adipose cells, macrophages, mast cells); fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular); ground substance (water, sugar, calcium salts, protein/carb complexes) - fibroblasts = most common cell type, synthesize and secrete fibers and ground substance - fat/adipose cells = fat storage; impt for energy - macrophages = engulf foreign matter - mast cells = near blood vessels, contain heparin (preventing blood clotting) and histamine (makes blood vessels “leaky”) - collagen fibers = major fiber type, positioned parallel to lines of stress/force placed on tissue - elastic fibers = elastic, present in abundance in some ligaments - loose areolar connective tissue = contains all cells and fiber types - dense regular connective tissue = collagen fibers running parallel to each other - blood is a form of connective tissue - cartilage – chondrocyte (live in small spaces called lacunae), fibers and ground substance made by chondroblasts - hyaline, elastic, fibrocartliage skin - protection, temperature regulation, hydroegulation (urea excreted), source of vitamin D, sensory reception - epidermis – stratified squamous epithelium – keratinized - cell types: keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans/dendritic cells (macrophages), merkel cells (sensory) - stratum basale – germinative layer - keratinocytes (“stem cells”, proliferating, more keratinized as them move to surface); melanocytes (produce melanin, form umbrella over basal layer) - highly variable layers: stratums spinosum, granulosum, lucidum - stratum corneum – keratinized superficial layer - dermis – connective tissue, contains all cell and fiber types, “leather” (holds 5% of total blood volume) - papillary (stratum papillarosum) – superficial layer; 25% thickness - reticular (stratum reticularosum) – deep layer, 75% thickness, collagen fibers (aligned parallel to stresses put on skin) - langers lines – make incisions parallel to prevent gaping - hypodermis: subcutaneous fascia, fatty layer beneath the skin - all skin appendages derived from epidermis basal layer - nail, hair and hair follicles, sweat glands bone and skeletal tissues
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