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Introduction to Developmental Psychology

Introduction to Developmental Psychology - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Developmental Psychology 1. Please familiarize yourself with the theories and developmental stages of the following persons as discussed in your textbook, along with relevant criticisms: 1. Jean Piaget (4 stages of Cognitive Development) 1. sensorimotor (birth-2 yrs) - differentiates self from objects - recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally - achieves object permanence; realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present to senses 2. preoperational (2-7 yrs) - learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words - thinking is still egocentric; has difficult taking the viewpoint of others - classifies objects by a single feature 3. concrete operational (7-12 yrs) - can think logically about objects and events - achieves conservation of number (age 7), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9) - classifies objects by several features and can order them in a series along a single dimension 4. formal operational (12 yrs old and up) - can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically - becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems 2. Lawrence Kohlberg (3 levels of Moral Development) 1. preconventional - earliest level of moral development, in which self-interest determines what is moral 2. conventional - middle stage of moral development, in which rules and the approval of other determines what is moral 3. postconventional - highest stage of moral development, in which decisions about mortality depend on abstract principles Eric Erickson (8 stages of Psychosocial Development): overlap with developmental periods stage age identity challenge successful resolution of challenge infancy 0-2 trust vs. mistrust children learn that the world is safe and that ppl are loving and reliable toddler 2-3 autonomy vs. shame and doubt encouraged to explore environment, children gain feelings of independence and positive self -esteem preschool 4-6 initiative vs. guilt children develop sense of purpose by taking on responsibilities; develop
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capacity to feel guilty childhood 7-12 industry vs. inferiority by working successfully with others, children learn to feel competent adolescence 13-19 ego identity vs. role confusion by exploring different social roles adolescents develop a sense of identity young adulthood 20s intimacy vs. isolation young adults gain the ability to commit to long-term relationships middle adulthood 30s – 50s generativity vs. stagnation adults gain a sense that they are contributing to the future and caring for future generations old age 60s + integrity vs. despair older adults feel a sense of satisfaction that they have lived a good life and developed wisdom 1. Developmental Psychology Defined: Developmental Psychology Defined: 1. the study of the influence of maturation and experience on the emergence and activation of multiple psychological processes across distinct developmental periods - development: process of unfolding, that which we are genetically endowed with comes to be expressed The Developmental Periods:
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