Psych Midterm 2 - Psych Midterm 2 GHH chapters 2, 6, 12...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Psych Midterm 2 GHH chapters 2, 6, 12 Chapter 2: Research Methodology What is Scientific Inquiry? - scientific inquiry is a way of finding answers to empirical questions - scientific method: a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why - the scientific method depends of theories, hypotheses, and research - theory: a model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events - a good theory should generate a hypothesis - hypothesis: a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct - once a hypothesis is developed, you must do research and collect data - theories should generate hypotheses - a good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses - unexpected findings can be valuable - many significant findings are the result of when researchers unexpectedly discover something important What are the Types of Studies in Psychological Research? - three types of studies: descriptive, correlational, experimental - variable: something in the world that can be measured and that can vary - operational definitions: identify and quantify variables - descriptive studies involve observing and classifying behavior - descriptive (observational) studies involve observing and noting behavior to analyze it objectively - naturalistic observation: a passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing behavior - participant observation: a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation - longitudinal studies: involve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time - cross-sectional studies: involve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in different groups of people at the same time - observer bias - systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations - observer bias can change the behavior being observed experimenter expectancy effect - correlational designs examine how variables are related - a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them - rely on naturally occurring relationships - used to determine if two variables are associated with each other
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
- directionality problem: when there is a relationship between two variables in a correlational study and the researchers cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable - third variable problem: when the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable - an experiment involves manipulating conditions - a study that tests causal hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables - experiments are criticized for being artificial - establishing causality
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course PSYCH 202 taught by Professor Roberts during the Fall '06 term at University of Wisconsin Colleges Online.

Page1 / 6

Psych Midterm 2 - Psych Midterm 2 GHH chapters 2, 6, 12...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online