zoology1 - 23:40 what is life?- properties of life order...

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Unformatted text preview: 23:40 what is life?- properties of life order energy processing response to environment regulation reproduction growth and development evolutionary adaptation how will we study biology?- life builds from bottom up- level of biological organization molecule cell/organelle tissue organ organ system organism population community ecosystem biosphere- classification of living organisms domains bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes no nucleus) eukaryotes (nucleusin cells) kingdoms: protista, animalia, fungi, plantas animals eukaryotic multicellular heterotrophic (ingest food) cells lack cell wall bodies made up of cells organized into tissues specific developmental patterns/genes- life is diverse, but there is unity in the diversity- evolution accounts for unity and diversity biological evolution natural selection population with varied inherited traits elimination of individuals with certain traits survivors reproduce increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success- form fits function a t all levels of organization molecules- water = solvent of life all animals made largely of water covalent bond atoms sharing a pair of electrons (e- ) o is more electronegative than H unequal sharing of e- s polar covalent bond water is a polar molecule polar covalent bonds important in biological molecules O-H N-H S-H water can form hydrogen bonds (H bonds) H-bond: attraction of partial changes water can H-bond to itself water can H-bond to other polar molecules ions (charged particles) dissolve in water polar molecules dissolve in water organic macromolecules- carbon-containing, large molecules- carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acid- big molecules made of small subunit molecules (monomer) add 2 monomers together = dimmer how do monomers become larger dehydration synthesis monomer in, water out many monomers polymer polymers can be broken apart hydrolysis water in, monomer out carbohydrates (sugars)- monomer = monosaccharide glucose (cellular respiration: fuel to make ATP)- disaccharide sucrose, lactose, maltose broken down for quick energy hydrolytic enzymes to break apart- oligosaccharides a few (3-20) monosaccharides- many monosaccharides polysaccharides cellulose, starch, glycogen- functions of polysaccharides energy storage starch glycogen animal muscle and liver contain glycogen structure cellulose (no hydrolysis) plants chitin insects, crustaceans proteins monomer = amino acid 2- naturally occurring amino acids some charged, some not hydrophilic (have O-H, N-H, S-H; polar covalent) hydrophobic (C-C and C-H bonds; not polar)- amino acid + amino acid dipeptide (through dehydration synthesis)- peptide bond between 2 amino acids- polypeptide = lots of amino acids- polypeptide must fold up to become a functional protein- 4 levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) primary linear sequence of amino acid secondary localized folding alpha helix...
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zoology1 - 23:40 what is life?- properties of life order...

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