nutriscireview - NS 132 Exam#1 Review Outline Energy Food...

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NS 132 Exam #1 Review Outline Energy % Food is packaged solar energy % The body uses the energy it derives from foods. .. or. .. stores it for future use % Metabolism: The process of releasing energy from foods, converting substances into other substances, and preparing end products for excretion - is the sum of all biochemical reactions taking place in the body. % A formula for balance (in a healthy adult) is: Energy in = Energy out % A calorie is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree in Centigrade. % A food calorie is actually a kilocalorie (kcal); when used for food, the "c" in "calorie" is capitalized. % Different macronutrients have different energy values. % Carbohydrates % Fat % Protein % ____ 4 _kcals/gram % ____ 4 _kcals/gram % ___ 9 _kcals/gram % Meet the Nutrients % What is a "nutrient"?- % Water - Required in the greatest quantity of all nutrients. % Macronutrients (3)- carbohydrate, protein, lipid % Micronutrients (2)- vitamins, minerals % Non-nutrients (2)- phytonutrients % Functions of nutrients: % Structure: water (cell expansion/wilting), lipid (cell membrane), protein (muscle, organ, tissue, skin), minerals (bone, teeth) % Energy: fuel; calories=kilocalories=kcal % Regulation of metabolism 1 Synthesis of body tissue, hormones, proteins, and other substances; enzymes are catalysts. 2 Release of energy from nutrients; vitamins and minerals serve as cofactors. % Fluid Balance: sodium, potassium, protein % Acid-base Balance: minerals, protein % Nutrient density : The ratio of a food's nutrient composition to its energy value. Scientific Research % Anecdotal evidence is useful in generating questions that may lead to hypotheses. % Scientific method includes the following types of studies: 1. Epidemiological or observational studies : Cannot prove cause; can suggest correlations only. 2. Animal experiments : Results may not be easily generalized to humans. 3. Human experiments : Difficult to control all aspects of human activity. % Case-control studies are designs in which those with the condition in question are compared with those who do not have it. % Double-blind studies include a control group and are designed so that neither the researchers nor the subjects know which group receives the intervention and which group receives the placebo. Balanced Diet -- All foods in moderation! % Micronutrients are needed in certain quantities by most healthy people in order to prevent deficiency and
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to achieve optimal functioning. Intakes above these quantities may be toxic and may result in death. (Recall the normal-shaped curve from lecture notes.) % Historically, nutritional problems were those of deficiency. The focus was on setting suggested human minimums for food groups. Example- % Beginning in 1980 or so, we realized the nutritional problems of most Americans had to do with chronic disease and ingestion of excess calories. The food guide pyramid was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to replace the previous food group model. This introduced the
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nutriscireview - NS 132 Exam#1 Review Outline Energy Food...

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