2050 final study guide

2050 final study guide - Water on Earth Evaporation

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Water on Earth Evaporation -the change from the liquid to the gas stage  -Can happen at any time there is an input of energy in the atmosphere,  the more gas molecules you have the less liquid molecules -the movement of free water molecules away from a wet surface into air that is less than saturated; the phase change of water to water vapor -takes heat from the enviroment allowing the water to stay cooler -consumes more of the energy arriving at the oceans surface than is expended over a comparable area of land; so much water available -about 84% of all evaporation on earth come from the ocean heat energy is absorbd in the process and is stored in water vapor as latent heat Condensation -there is a change from gas molecules to liquid molecules Saturation - the balance between evaporation & condensation -Evaporation is = to condensation -100% relative humidity, when the rate of evaporation & the rate of condensation >The net transfer of water molecules reach equilibrium -Indicates that any further addition of water vapor or decrease in temperature that reduces the evaporation rate results in active condensation -Air is said to be at saturation when the rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation reach equilibrium, and any further addition of water vapor or temperature lowering will result in active condensation (100%
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relative humidity) Vapor Pressure That portion of total air pressure that results from water vapor molecules; expressed in millibars (mb). At a given dew-point temperature the maximum capacity of the air is termed its saturation vapor pressure. Measuring water vapor content Measures of Humidity -the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere
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Relative Humidity ratio of the amount of water vapor actually in the air to the maximum possible at a given temperature. Relative humidity tells us how near the air is to saturation. Specific Humidity The mass of water vapor (in grams) per unit mass of air (in kilograms) at any specified temperature. The maximum mass of water vapor that a kilogram of air can hold at any specified temperature is termed its maximum specific humidity (compare vapor pressure, relative humidity). Dew Point Temp The temp at which air achieves saturation Hygrometer -An instrument for measuring relative humidity; based on the principle that human hair will change as much as 4% in length between 0% and 100% relative humidity.
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Psychrometer -A weather instrument that measures relative humidity using two thermometers--a dry bulb and a wet bulb--mounted side-by-side. Saturation of Air How air becomes saturated Air is said to be at saturation when the rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation reach equilibrium, and any further addition of water vapor or temperature lowering will result in active condensation (100% relative humidity) Diabatic Processes -means occurring with an exchange of heat
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Adiabatic Processes -means occurring without a loss or gain of heat; without any heat
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2050 final study guide - Water on Earth Evaporation

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