This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Class notes-Lecture Four Urinary System The urinary system consists of the kidneys that remove substances from the blood and form urine, a pair of tubular ureters that transport urine away from the kidneys, a saclike urinary bladder that serves as a urine reservoir, and a tubular urethra that conveys urine to the outside of the body. Signs and symptoms of urinary system dysfunction Hematuria (grossly visible or microscopic), protein in the urine, frequent urination, painful urination, difficulty urinating, history of frequent and recurrent urinary tract infections, flank pain, history of renal disease, pain in the area of the kidney(s) that may radiate to the abdomen and leg. Tests of renal function/kidney profile Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)- Obtained from a venous blood sample. Normal range 8-25 mg/dl. Urea is the end product of protein metabolism. When the kidneys are unable to secrete urea normally it builds up in the blood. Urea itself is difficult to measure so urea nitrogen is measured because N2 contained in urea is easily measured. Azotemia is the term that refers to a BUN above the normal level. Causes of an increased BUN may be excessive urea in the blood or decreased renal blood flow, renal disease, or urinary obstruction like kidney stones or an enlarged prostate. The test is used to screen for prerenal, renal and post renal disease. False elevations may be caused by antibiotics, antihypertensive agents, dehydration, high protein intake in diet, and excessive body protein catabolism such as accompanies fever, starvation, etc. Creatinine- Obtained from a venous blood sample. Normal range 0.6-1.5 mg/dl. Creatinine is a by-product of muscle metabolism. It is produced at a constant rate depending on the body muscle mass of the person and is removed from the body by the kidneys. Kidney dysfunction results in increased levels of creatinine. The test is used to screen for impaired renal function. It is a more specific and sensitive indicator of kidney disease than BUN, although in chronic renal disease, BUN correlates more accurately with symptoms of urea than does the creatinine. Increased levels occur with impaired renal function, urinary obstruction, muscle disease (myasthenia gravis, giantism, muscular dystrophy, poliomyelitis), diabetic acidosis, starvation, hyperthyroidism, with diets high in meat, and with some medications. Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)- Invasive. The IVP uses contrast medium and radiography to visualize the anatomy and function of the urinary tract. After intravenous injection of contrast material, timed radiographs are taken of the urinary tract. Films at 1 minute visualize the kidneys; at 3 to 5 minutes the renal collecting system; at 10 minutes the ureters are seen and at 20-30 minutes filling of the bladder is seen. A post voiding film demonstrates the ability of ureters are seen and at 20-30 minutes filling of the bladder is seen....
View Full Document
- Fall '11
- urinary tract, renal disease