EESA01 Lecture 2-2011-compressed

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Unformatted text preview: Introduc)on
to
Environmental
 Science
 Lecture
#2
 September
19,
2011
 Professor
C.
Mitchell
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 1
 “ Tragedy
of
the
Commons”
 •  Concept
proposed
by
GarreJ
Hardin
(Ecologist
 from
UCSB)
in
1968.

 •  Unregulated
exploita)on
leads
to
resource
 deple)on.
 •  Resource
users
are
tempted
to
increase
use
 un)l
the
resource
is
gone.
 •  Is
this
STILL
the
basis
for
ongoing
 environmental
issues?

 •  Can
we
do
anything
about
it?
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 2
 Rapa
Nui
(Easter
Island)
 •  Pay
close
aJen)on
to
 “The
Science
Behind
 the
Story”
on
page
11
 of
your
text.

 •  Downfall
of
a
whole
 civiliza)on
at
least
 par)ally
aJributable
to
 “Tragedy
of
the
 Commons”
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 3
 The
Base
Cause
of
Environmental
 Degrada)on
 My
opinion
(probably
the
same
as
most
 Environmental
Scien)st’s):

 THE
ENVIRONMENTAL
ISSUES
THAT
WE
FACE
 TODAY
ARE
DUE
TO
A
COMBINATION
OF
WORLD
 POPULATION
GROWTH
AND
CONSUMPTION
 (SPECIFICALLY,
ENERGY)
FAR
ABOVE
WHAT
CAN
 EASILY
BE
REPLACED

 AND…
 A
GENERAL
IGNORANCE
TO
RECOGNIZE
THIS.
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 4
 What
is
Environmental
SCIENCE?
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 5
 Environmental
Scien)sts
and
 Environmentalists
 •  My
grandmother
always
calls
me
an
 “environmentalist”.

She
is
only
par)ally
 correct.
 •  The
basis
of
science
is
to
NOT
approach
a
 problem
from
a
biased
view
(i.e.,
to
be
 objec)ve).

 •  Many
environmentalists
are
not
objec)ve.

 •  This
does
not
mean
that
environmental
 scien)sts
cannot
be
environmentalists,
just
that
 they
are
not
necessarily
so.

 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 6
 Cornucopians
vs.
Cassandras
 •  Cornucopia:
horn
of
plenty
 –  Human
ingenuity
will
see
us
through
 our
environmental
problems
via
new
 technologies
and
the
such.
 •  Cassandra:
mythical
princess
of
 Troy
who
prophesized
about
dire
 future
scenarios 

 –  All
is
lost
because
of
our
impact
on
the
 environment.
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 7
 Examples
of
Prac)cal
Solu)ons
 •  •  •  •  Scrubbers
on
smokestacks.
($$)
 Recycling
($$)
 Renewable
energy
(i.e.,
solar
and
wind)
($$)
 Best
management
prac)ces
in
natural
resource
 extrac)on
and
agriculture.

($$)
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 8
 Sustainable
Development
 “Development
(i.e.,
economic
advancement
 through
the
use
of
natural
resources)
that
 meets
the
needs
of
the
present
without
 sacrificing
the
ability
of
future
genera)ons
to
 meet
their
needs.”
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brundtland
Commission
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 9
 Is
All
Lost?
 Lecture
1
–
Introduc)on
to
Environmental
Science
 10
 On
to
today’s
main
topic:

 Popula)on
and
Environmental
 Consequences
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 11
 Comprehension
Objec)ves
for
 Today’s
Lecture
 The
scope
of
human
popula)on
growth
 The
history
of
human
popula)on
 Fundamentals
of
demography

 The
demographic
transi)on Factors
that
affect
popula)on
growth
 The
effect
of
popula)on,
affluence
and
technology
 on
the
environment
 •  The
current
effects
of
disease
in
controlling
 popula)on
growth
 •  •  •  •  •  •  Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 12
 Popula)on:
A
root
cause
of
 environmental
degrada)on?
 •  Much
of
the
environmental
degrada)on
in
the
 world
is
due
to:

 •  •  Popula)on
growth
 Wide
misuse
and
overuse
of
resources
by
too
many
 people.
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 13
 IPAT(S)
Model
 •  1974:
Paul
Ehrlich
and
John
Holdren
 •  Total
impact
(I)
on
environment
is
a
result
of
the
 interac)on
between
popula)on
(P),
affluence
(A),
 technology
(T),
and
sensi)vity
(S):

 I = P × A×T ×S •  Impact
is
largely
POLLUTION,
RESOURCE
 DEPLETION,
or
both.
 € Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 14
 The
First
Humans
 •  Oldest
known
homonid
(human‐like)
fossils:

 –  Ethiopia: 
4.1
My.
bp
 Lucy
 Australopithecus
afarensis
 hJp://jamierainbowsuperstarpoptart.vox.com/library/audio/6a00d09e5b7c8abe2b00d41427ec5e3c7f.html
 –  Chad: 
 
~7


My.
bp?
 “Toumaï”
 Sahelanthropus
tchadensis
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 15
 Doubling
Time
 •  The
number
of
years
it
takes,
given
a
specific
rate
 of
increase,
for
a
number
(such
as
popula)on)
to
 double.


 ln(2) × 100 70 = tD = growthrate(%) growthrate(%) € 1979
China
growth
rate
=
2.8%
(popl’n
at
)me:
1B)
 Current
global
growth
rate
=
1.2%
(now:
~6.9B)
 Current
Canada
growth
rate
(natural
and
net
 immigra)on
together)
=
0.9%
(now:
33.5M)
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 16
 Global
Popula)on
Growth
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 17
 Carrying
Capacity
 •  “The
maximum
 popula)on
size
 of
a
species
that
 a
given
 environment
 can
sustain.”
 •  Limi)ng
factors
 •  Births
≈
deaths
 Earth’s
carrying
capacity?
Between
10
million
and
33
billion.
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 18
 Carrying
Capacity
Uncertainty
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 19
 4
Dis)nct
Increases
in
Carrying
 Capacity
for
Humans

 A.
Progressive
diffusion
from
original
centres
 B.
Surges
in
popula)on:
“technological
change”
 
“leaps”
–
“revolu)ons”
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 20
 Cultural
Revolu)on
during
Paleolithic
 Period
 Cultural
Revolu,on/Paleolithic
Period:
 •  Development
of
tools;
stone,
bone,
wood
 –  (Note
animal
tool
use
–
crows)
 •  •  •  •  Omnivorous
diet
 Manipula)on
of
fire
 Development
of
speech
and
communica)on
 Toolmaking:
 

 –  Ethiopia: –  Tanzania: 
 
 
2.6
My

bp
 
1.75
My
bp
 •  LiJle
evidence
of
popula)on
at
)me.
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 21
 Agricultural
Revolu)on
 Agricultural
Revolu,on:
 •  Start
~
10‐12,000
years
bp
 •  Transi)on
from
nomadic
hunter‐gatherer
to
seJled
farmer
 (environmental
manipula)on
to
meet
needs)
 •  Consequences:
 –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Reduc)on
of
area
needed
per
person
 500
X
popula)on
density
 Excessof
food
produc)on
over
minimum
 Whole
popula)on
need
not
be
in
food
produc)on
or
acquisi)on
 Establishment
of
seJlements
 Social
structures
–
priests
–
accountants
–
salesmen
 “Fer)le
Crescent”
–
note
soil
saliniza,on
&
collapse
of
society
 •  Easier
to
meet
needs
(food,
safety,
ease
of
raising
children)
 =
popula)on
increase
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 22
 Industrial
Revolu)on
 •  Began
mid‐1700’s
(Great
Britain)
 •  Transi)on
from
rural,
basic
farming
to
 manufacturing,
urban
society
and
massive
use
of
 energy
 •  Consequences:

 •  •  •  •  Improved
sanita)on
and
medicine
 Major
advance
in
agriculture
(powered
machinery‐ driven)
leads
to
increases
in
food
produc)on
 Greater
supply
of
energy,
resources,
labour
 Accumula)on
of
wealth
and
market
for
manufactured
 goods
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 23
 Medical‐Technological
Revolu)on
 •  We
are
in
the
middle
of
this
one
 •  Characteris)cs:
 •  •  •  •  Developments
in
medicine
and
pharmaceu)cals
 Improved
sanita)on
 Global
communica)on
 Green
RevoluAon
(agriculture
advances)
 •  Consequences:
 •  •  People
live
longer,
healthier
lives
 Gap
between
rich
and
poor
widened
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 24
 Demography:
The
study
of
human
 popula)on
 Considera)ons:

 •  Popula)on
size
 •  Popula)on
density
and
distribu)on
 •  Age
structure
 •  Sex
ra)os
 •  Birth,
death,
immigra)on,
and
emigra)on
 rates
 These
and
other
factors
(IPATS)
shape
a
popula)on’s
 environmental
impact.
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 25
 Popula)on
Growth
and
Density
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 26
 Age
structure
affects
future
 popula)on
dynamics
 •  Having
many
individuals
in
young
age
groups
 results
in
high
reproduc)on
and
rapid
popula)on
 growth
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 27
 Sex
Ra)os
 •  Evolu)on
has
led
to
a
slight
favouring
of
male
 offspring
–
106
males
to
every
100
females
born
 •  In
China,
~120
males
to
every
100
females
born
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 28
 The
Demographic
Transi)on
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 29
 Is
the
Demographic
Transi)on
 Universal?
 •  It
has
occurred
in
Europe,
U.S.,
Canada,
 Japan,
and
other
na)ons
over
the
past
 200‐300
years
 •  The
transi)on
could
fail
in
cultures
that

 –  Place
greater
value
on
childbirth
 –  Grant
women
fewer
freedoms
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 30
 Popula)on
Factors
Affec)ng
 Environment
 1.  Educa)on
and
the
status
of
women,
as
well
as
 family
planning
 Figure 6.16 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 31
 Popula)on
Factors
Affec)ng
 Environment
 2.  Poverty
 –  82%
of
the
world’s
popula)on
live
in
developing
 countries
 –  99%
of
the
next
1
billion
people
born
will
be
in
these
 poorer,
less
developed
regions
 –  Poverty
can
lead
to
environmental
degrada)on
 because
people
have
no
other
choice,
but
to
try
to
 survive
by
any
means
available
 –  Greater
issue
is
that
much
of
the
world’s
poor
live
in
 “sensi)ve”
areas

Sub‐Saharan,
Africa
agriculture
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 32
 Popula)on
Factors
Affec)ng
 Environment
 3.  Affluence
(or
Affluenza)
 –  Number
of
people
is
important,
but
how
those
people
 use
resources
is
also
important
(IPATS)
 –  We,
as
Canadians,
are
much
harsher
on
the
 environment,
per
capita
than
people
in
developing
 countries
 –  For
example,
in
terms
of
ecological
footprint,
1
 Canadian
equals:
 

 •  •  •  6
Chinese
 12
Indians
 40
Somalians
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 33
 Popula)on
Factors
Affec)ng
 Environment
 4.  Disease,
especially
HIV/AIDS
 –  How
rampant
a
problem
this
is
in
Africa
is
enough
to
 make
anyone
sick.
 –  One
cause
for
not
necessarily
following
the
 Demographic
Transi)on
(i.e.,
mortality
is
rising)
 –  1
in
5
people
aged
15‐49
in
southern
Africa
have
HIV/ AIDS…context:
if
I
were
teaching
this
class
there,
~100
 of
you
would
be
infected.
 –  Growing
problem
in
eastern
Europe,
central
Asia
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 34
 Some
Glimmers
of
Hope
 •  Although
the
global
popula)on
con)nues
to
 grow,
growth
rates
are
declining
almost
 everywhere
 •  Women’s
rights
and
access
to
educa)on
are
 being
expanded
in
many
places,
which
will
 have
great
benefits
to
reduce
popula)on
 growth
and
impacts
on
the
environment.
 •  hJp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3p2VLTowAA&feature=related
 Lecture
2
–
Popula)on
and
Environmental
Consequences
 35
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course ENVIRONMEN eesa01 taught by Professor Mitchel during the Fall '11 term at University of Toronto.

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