EESA01 Lecture6-2011-compressed

EESA01 Lecture6-2011-compressed - EESA01
Lecture
6


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Unformatted text preview: EESA01
Lecture
6
 Finish
Water
Resources;
Start
Soils
 October
24,
2011
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 1
 Runoff
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 2
 Groundwater
 •  Aquifer
 •  Water
Table
 •  Confined
vs.
 Unconfined
Aquifer
 •  Recharge
vs.
 Discharge
Zones
 •  Artesian
Well
 Figure 11.5 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 3
 Overuse
of
Groundwater
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 4
 Groundwater
PolluPon

 •  Groundwater
generally
has
an
extremely
 LONG
residence
Pme
(up
to
thousands
of
 years).

 •  Therefore,
if
polluted,
it
can
take
up
to
 millenia
for
chemicals
to
be
moved
out
of
 it.

RemediaPon
more
dependent
on
 degradaPon.
 •  Major
sources:
buried
tanks/containers,
 agricultural
acPviPes
(ferPlizers
and
 animal
waste).
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 5
 The
Water
Balance
 Inputs
–
Outputs
=
Change
in
Storage
 OR
 I
–
O
=
ΔS
 Inputs:
PrecipitaPon
(rain
AND
snow)
 Output:
EvapotranspiraPon,
Runoff
 (streamflow)
 Storage:
Groundwater,
soil
moisture,
lakes
 and
reservoirs,
rivers
and
streams.
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 6
 A
Catchy
Tune?
 To
help
you
remember
the
water
cycle:
 hep://www.youtube.com/watch? v=T05djitkEFI&feature=related
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 7
 What
is
there
more
of?
 1.  2.  3.  4.  Fresh
water
in
lakes.
 Fresh
water
in
rivers.
 Fresh
water
belowground?
 Fresh
water
frozen
in
glaciers
and
ice
 caps?
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 8
 Fresh
Water
is
VERY
Limited
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 9
 Wetlands
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 Marshes
 Swamps
 Peatlands
 Prairie
Potholes
 Habitat
 Drainage
 Ramsar
ConvenPon
 10
 Lakes
and
Ponds
 Lieoral
zone
 Benthic
zone
 LimnePc
zone
 Profundal
zone
 Oligotrophic
vs
 eutrophic
 •  Hypolimnion
 •  Turnover
 •  •  •  •  •  Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 11
 Rivers
 •  Watershed
 •  Drainage
Divide
 •  Tributaries
 •  Stream
Order
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 12
 Freshwater
Management:
Dams
 Three Gorges Dam, China Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 13
 Freshwater
Management:
Dams
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 14
 Agricultural
Water
Usage
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 15
 Extreme
Example:
Aral
Sea,
Asia
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 16
 SoluPons?

 •  Globally,
we
currently
use
10%
of
annual
 runoff
to
meet
our
water
needs.

 •  Water
is
not
always
where
we
need
it.

 •  Two
real
soluPons:

 1.  Reduce
demand
through
conservaPon
and
 efficiency.

 2.  Increase
supply
(not
easy
and
big
$$$).
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 17
 Water
PolluPon
 •  Pollu5on:
the
release
into
the
 environment
of
maeer
or
energy
that
 causes
undesirable
impacts
on
the
health
 and
well‐being
of
humans
or
other
 organisms.

 •  Point
source:
emission
of
polluPon
from
 discrete,
easily
recognized
locaPons.

 •  Non‐point
source:
emission
of
polluPon
 from
mulPple
cumulaPve
inputs
over
 large
areas.

 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 18
 Point
vs.
Non‐Point
Source
 PolluPon
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 19
 The
soluPon
to
polluPon
is
NOT
 diluPon,
it
is
PREVENTION
in
the
first
 place.
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 20
 Red
Mud
in
Hungary!!
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEMWh6EjJoY Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 21
 Industrial
Issue:
Aluminum
 ProducPon
 ALUMINUM PROCESSING Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 22
 Red
Mud
and
pH
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 23
 Soil
is
a
CRITICAL
RESOURCE
 SOIL
IS
AN
ABSOLUTELY
CRITICAL
RESOURCE
 •  Decline
and
fall
of
the
Mesopotamian
culture
(salt)
 •  Failure
of
Aztec
culture
 CANADA:



 •  13%
cropland
 •  54%
forests
and
woodlands

 CRITICAL
FUNCTIONS:
 •  Agriculture/support
of
plants


FOOD!!!
 •  Soil
carbon
storage
 •  Ecosystem

 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 24
 Soil
is
a
“System”
 •  Complex
mixture
of
 organic
and
inorganic
 component
and
full
of
 various
organisms:

 –  –  –  –  Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 Bacteria
 ProPsts
 Fungi
 Invertebrates
such
as
 earthworms
 25
 How
Does
Soil
Form?
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 26
 How
To
Get
Unconsolidated
 Material

 WEATHERING
 –  PHYSICAL

(MECHANICAL)
 •  GLACIERS,
TEMPERATURE
CHANGE,
FREEZING
OF
WATER
 –  CHEMICAL

 •  •  •  •  DISSOLUTION
IN
ACIDS
(RAINFALL)

 CARBONIC
ACID–
H2CO3
 PLANT
ORGANIC
ACIDS

 BACTERIA,
WORMS
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 27
 Soil
Forming
Factors
 28
 Soil
CharacterizaPon
 1.  Colour

largely
indicates
composiPon
(i.e.,
iron
 or
organic
maeer
content)
 2.  Texture

controlled
by
size
of
parPcles
 3.  Structure

indicates
the
organizaPon
or
 “clumpiness”
of
soil
 4.  Chem:pH

1‐14
scale;
low
=
acid;
high
=
alkaline
 Canadian
System
of
Soil
Classifica5on
 Orders:
Brunisolic,
Chernozemic,
Gleysolic,
Cryosolic,
 Luvisolic,
Organic,
Regosolic,
Podzolic,
Solonetzic,
 and
VerPsolic
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 29
 Soil
Texture
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 30
 Soil
Chemistry:
CaPon
Exchange
 •  Principal
means
by
which
plants
gain
nutrients
 like
K+,
Mg2+,
Ca2+,
other
caPons
 •  More
negaPvely
charged
surfaces
on
soil
means
 more
posiPvely
charged
ions
can
be
held
 •  Exchange:
plant
roots
donate
H+
to
soil
in
return
 for
caPon
nutrients
 •  Ca5on
exchange
capacity
(CEC)
expresses
a
soil’s
 ability
to
hold
onto
caPons
(i.e.,
not
to
be
leached
 out)
 •  CEC
is
a
thus
very
important
ferPlity
parameter
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 31
 CaPon
Exchange
Capacity
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 32
 Soils
are
Fragile
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 33
 We
Cannot
ConPnue
to
Extensify
 Actually,
we
are
losing
arable
cropland.
 •  Loss
since
Agricultural
RevoluPon:

 –  –  •  •  4.3
x
106
km2
=
1/3
current
global
cropland
 Current
rate
of
loss
=
200,000
km2
yr‐1
 Loss
due
to
urban‐industrial
sprawl

around
Toronto,
for
 instance
 Loss
due
to
soil
erosion


EVERYWHERE!
 Major problem: not all land is arable •  Land Capability Classification: –  Class 1 through 8 essentially go from great farmland to land of little use. Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 34
 Class
1
Land:
Potatoes
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 35
 Class
1
Land:
Crop?
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 36
 Class
2
Land
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 37
 Class
5
Land
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 38
 Class
7
Land
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 39
 Soil
DegradaPon
Problems
 Ideal
Soil:
loamy
mixture
with
neutral
pH
that
is
 workable
and
can
hold
nutrients
 Increasingly,
producPvity
is
being
limited
by
human
 influences
on
what
used
to
be
GREAT
cropland.

 •  •  •  •  Erosion Desertification Salinization Waterlogging Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 •  Nutrient depletion •  Structural breakdown •  Pollution 40
 Biggest
Issue:
SOIL
EROSION
 •  All
climate
and
soil
types
 •  Most
agricultural
techniques
increase
 erosion
rates
by
10‐100
X
“natural”
rates
 •  Agents
of
erosion
 1.  Wind:
flat,
treeless
terrain

exposure;
 dependent
on
texture
 2.  Water:
slope
and
rainfall
rates
are
criPcal;
 increased
surface
runoff
causes
great
erosion
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 41
 42
 43
 Drought
x
Wind:
The
“Dust
Bowl”
 And then… The grasshoppers came. Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 44
 Soil
ConservaPon
&
Management
 Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 45
 Soil
ConservaPon
&
Management
 Agroforestry: specific type of intercropping; lots of benefits (easier moisture management, return of litter as nutrients, shade, increased biodiversity). Lecture
6
–
Water
Resources
and
Soil
 46
 Benefits
of
No‐Till
Farming
 47
 ...
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