EESA01 Lecture9-2011-compressed

EESA01 Lecture9-2011-compressed - EESA01
Lecture
9


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Unformatted text preview: EESA01
Lecture
9
 End
Biodiversity
Then
Air
Pollu:on
 and
Global
Warming
 November
14,
2011
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 1
 Loss
of
Biodiversity
 •  Ex#nc#on:
species
ceases
to
exist

 •  Ex#rpa#on:
loss
of
a
species
from
a
 par:cular
area
 •  Endangered:
in
imminent
danger
of
 becoming
ex:nct
or
ex:rpated
 •  Threatened:
likely
to
become
endangered
in
 the
near
future
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 2
 Ex:nc:on
 •  Natural
process,
but
current
rates
of
 ex:nc:on
are
much
higher
than
“normal”
 Should be 66.5 mya. Dinosaurs!! Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 3
 Major
Causes
of
Biodiversity
Loss
 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Habitat
altera:on
 Invasive
species
 Pollu:on
 Overharves:ng
 Climate
Change
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 4
 Consequences
of
Biodiversity
 Loss
 1.  Loss
of
ecosystem
func:oning
 –  Keystone
species
 –  Ecosystem
engineers
 2.  3.  4.  5.  Food
security
 Loss
of
poten:al
medicines
 Loss
of
eco‐tourism
 Loss
of
nice
places
to
sit
and
think
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 5
 Let’s
Move
On
 How
many
kg
of
CO2
are
emi]ed
from
the
 average
car
driving
to
this
campus
from
 Markham?
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 6
 I
drive
a
Volvo
S40.

 According
to
some
websites
I
found,
my
car
 emits
an
average
of
217
g
CO2
km‐1.

 From
downtown
Markham
to
this
campus
is
 about
27
km.
 217
g
CO2
km‐1
x
27
km
=
5859
g
=
5.9
kg

 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 7
 How
much
would
a
tree
in
my
yard
have
to
 grow
to
sequester
that
much
CO2?

 Presume
wood
density
of
700
kg
m‐3,
that
the
tree
has
a
 diameter
of
20
cm,
that
tree
gains
mass
only
by
growing
UP,
that
 it
is
round,
and
that
it
is
100%
carbon.


 700
kg
m‐3
=
7
x
10‐4
kg
cm‐3
 With
diameter
=
20
cm,
area
=
πr2
=
300
cm2
 So,
each
cm
height
of
trunk
is
~
7
x
10‐4
kg
cm‐3
x
300
cm2
=
.2
kg
 cm‐1
 So,
to
replace
5.9
kg,
the
tree
would
need
to
grow
~30
cm.
 How
many
20
cm
diameter
trees
that
grow
30
cm
d‐1
do
you
 have
in
your
yard?
(BTW,
trip
to
Markham
only
1‐way)
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 8
 Gases
in
Our
Atmosphere
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 9
 Atmospheric
Structure
 •  •  •  •  •  •  Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 Troposphere
 Tropopause
 Stratosphere
 Mesosphere
 Thermosphere
 Ozone
Layer
 10
 Ver:cal
Mixing
 •  Temperature
 trends
in
and
 between
 atmospheric
layers
 control
“mixing”.

 •  Some
devia:ons
 possible
from
 previous
figure
 (13.2).

 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 11
 Air
Pollu:on
 •  Natural
Sources:

 –  Wind/dust
storms
from
arid
regions
 –  Volcanic
erup:ons

par:culates,
SO2,
gases;
 Mt.
Pinatubo
1991
 –  Forest
fires

soot,
CO2
 •  Anthropogenic
Sources
(LOTS!):

 –  Factories
(stacks)
 –  Power
plants
 –  Automobiles
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 12
 Important
Pollutant
 Characteris:cs
 •  Composi:on
and
reac:vity
 •  Residence
Time

how
long
they
stay
in
 atmosphere
for
 •  Persistence

how
long
they
s:ck
around
 before
breaking
down
 •  Transportability

how
far
they
can
be
 moved
in
the
atmosphere
 •  Impacts
on
structures,
ecosystems,
and
 health
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 13
 Criteria
Air
Contaminants
(CACs)
 •  •  •  •  •  •  •  SO2
(sulphur
dioxide):
ro]en
egg
smell;
mostly
from
burning
coal;
 may
react
in
atmosphere
to
produce
sulphuric
acid
(acid
rain)
 NO2
(nitrous
oxide):
highly
reac:ve;
mostly
from
cars;
also
 contributes
to
acid
rain
 Par#culate
ma>er:
par:cles
small
enough
to
be
suspended
in
 atmosphere;
largely
dust
and
soot
from
burning;
can
cause
severe
 respiratory
issues
 Vola#le
Organic
Compounds
(VOCs):
in
car
engines;
industrial
and
 household
chemicals
and
consumer
goods;
about
half
are
natural
 emissions
 Carbon
Monoxide:
from
incomplete
combus:on;
inhibits
oxygen
 absorp:on
 Ammonia:
mostly
from
livestock
waste
and
fer:lizers;
strong
odour;
 irritant;
can
react
to
form
PM,
eutrophica:on
 Tropospheric
ozone:
different
from
stratospheric
ozone;
secondary
 pollutant
(formed
from
other
pollutants
reac:ng
with
light);
makes
 14
 smog
 Persistent
Organic
Pollutants
 (POPs)
 •  •  •  •  •  Persistent
means
they
last
in
the
environment
 (long
residence
:me/do
not
break
down
easily)
for
 a
long
:me
 Most
are
vola:le
(evaporate
easily)
meaning
they
 can
get
into
the
air
and
travel
long
distances
 Can
enter
food
chain,
bioaccumulate,
detrimental
 effects
at
low
concentra:ons
 Principle
source:
human
ac:vity

PCBs,
 pes:cides
(DDT),
incomplete
combus:on
products
 (dioxins,
furans)
 Silent
Spring
by
Rachel
Carson

pivotal
to
 environmental
movement
in
the
70’s

 15
 Heavy
Metals
 •  •  •  •  •  Especially
mercury
and
lead
 Can
be
transported
long
distances
in
atmosphere
(as
 gas
or
with
par:cles),
bioaccumulate
in
food
chain,
 cause
health
issues
(developmental
and
nervous),
 stay
in
environment
(soils)
for
long
:me
 Long‐range
transport
of
atmospheric
pollutants
 Mercury:
number
of
different
forms,
different
 toxicity,
“natural”
occurrences
in
environment
 exacerbate
situa:on,
bioaccumula:ve,
fish
the
major
 issue,
sources
both
natural
and
from
humans

 Lead:
similar
effects
to
mercury,
industrial
metal
 smel:ng
big
source,
used
to
be
“leaded”
gasoline
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 16
 Smog
 •  •  •  •  Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 Most
common
air
quality
 problem
 Can
s:ll
have
“industrial
 smog”
from
burning
of
fossil
 fuels
with
poor
pollu:on
 control
(developing
na:ons
 especially).

 Photochemical
smog
more
 widespread.

 Light‐driven
reac:ons
form
 ground‐level
ozone

 brown
air
 17
 Ozone
Deple:on
 •  •  •  •  •  We
consider
ozone
(O3)
a
pollutant
in
troposphere
 (smog),
but
it
is
absolutely
necessary
in
stratosphere
 Highly
effec:ve
at
absorbing
UV
radia:on
and
thus
 save
us
from
frying
or
developing
skin
cancer
in
a
 nanosecond
at
the
beach
 Ozone
can
be
broken
down
into
oxygen
and
a
 halogenated
oxide
by
reac:ng
with
halogens,
such
as
 those
found
in
chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs)
 Thinning
of
stratospheric
ozone

ozone
hole
 40‐60%
thinning
in
Antarc:c
ozone
layer
in
80’s
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 18
 Ozone
Deple:on
 •  •  •  •  Lecture
8
–
Atmospheric
Science
 Montreal
Protocol:
 numerous
na:ons
(1980)
 agreed
to
severely
cut
ozone
 deple:ng
chemicals
 Although
big
cuts
(~95%
of
 produc:on),
s:ll
a
lag
in
 response
of
the
ozone
layer
 A
lot
of
the
tropospheric
 pollutants
have
not
yet
 diffused
into
the
 stratosphere
 Good
model
for
addressing
 interna:onal
environmental
 problems
 19
 Acid
Rain
 •  •  •  •  Natural
rainwater

pH

5.6
 Acid
rain

pH
<
5.1
 pH
=
leach
nutrients
and
metals
from
soil
 









=
big
effects
on
aqua:c
wildlife
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 20
 Some
Improvements,
Some
Stability
 21
 Is
CO2
an
Atmospheric
Pollutant?
 •  •  •  •  •  Levels
ARE
going
up
 These
increasing
levels
can
easily
be
a]ributed
to
 industrial
and
other
human
ac:vity
 This
in
turn
is
leading
to
global
environmental
 changes
at
a
very
rapid
pace.

 Carbon
dioxide
(CO2)
is
a
“natural”
molecule
(we
 breathe
it
out),
but
should
it
also
be
classified
as
a
 pollutant?

 United
States
Environmental
Protec:on
Agency
 (EPA)
DID,
recently,
classify
CO2
as
a
pollutant.
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 22
 Debunking
Climate
Skep:cs
 •  h]p://www.youtube.com/watch? v=hWJeqgG3Tl8&feature=related
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 23
 The
Greenhouse
Effect
 Lecture
9
–
Biodiversity,
Air
Pollu:on,
and
Global
Warming
 24
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course ENVIRONMEN eesa01 taught by Professor Mitchel during the Fall '11 term at University of Toronto.

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