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EESA01 Lecture11-2011-compressed - EESA01Lecture11...

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EESA01 Lecture 11 Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves November 28, 2011 1 Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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Textbook Reading 2 For this week AND next week, you will have to have read ALL of chapters 15, 16, AND 17. (They are each quite short.) Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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Sources of Energy 3
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Global Energy Use 4 Figure 15.3 Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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Energy Use in Canada 5 Figure 15.1 Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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Energy for Energy 6 It takes energy (drilling, construc8on, transport, etc) to get and deliver the energy we use. Net Energy : difference between energy returned and energy invested Net Energy = Energy Returned – Energy Invested Energy Returned on Investment (EROI) : ra8o of energy returned to energy invested EROI = Energy Returned/Energy Invested Higher values for each indicate more efficient energy capture Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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EROI Changes Over Time 7 Historically, we have always taken the easiest to obtain resources first This means that oil, gas, and coal are all ge\ng more and more difficult/expensive to obtain Oil and gas in 1940s: EROI ~ 100:1 Oil and gas today: EROI ~ 15:1 Canadian tar sands: EROI ~ 5:1 Ethanol fuel: EROI ~ 2:1 Solar panels: EROI ~ 1:1 Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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Coal 8 Formed from peat deposits laid down 300‐400 million years ago and put under intense pressure with liale diges8on or decomposer ac8on It is a ROCK and provides ~1/4 of world’s commercial energy consump8on Figure 15.5
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Coal Mining 9 Subsurface Mining: shaes, networks or tunnels to expose coal seams. It is very hazardous. Strip Mining: heavy machinery removes strips to expose seems from surface down. Mountaintop Removal Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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“Clean Coal” 10 Depending on source (freshwater vs marine), coal contains variable amounts of sulphur and other pollutants, such as mercury and arsenic “Clean coal” involves reducing toxic chemical release using technology either before or aeer coal burn More efficient burn (fluidized bed) Gasifica8on (use coal to create synthe8c cleaner fuel) Scrubbers (calcium/sodium‐based absorbent) Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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Coal Mining Impacts 11 1. Habitat loss (specifically strip mining) 2. Soil erosion 3. Air pollu8on in burning 4. Generates other hazardous solid wastes 5. Acid Drainage: sulphur minerals in exposed rock react with air and water to make sulphuric acid, which can run off and leach out metals (increase toxicity) 6. Rehabilita8on and restora8on efforts rarely return things to “normal” and certainly not in short 8meframes 7. Dangerous shae collapse, black lung disease Lecture 11 – Energy, Impacts, and Alterna8ves
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