What_is_Development - Announcements   Tutorials begin Wed...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/22/11 Announcements   Tutorials begin Wed. Sept. 28   Make sure you know your group   Do not switch session without permission What is “Development”? Conceptualization and Discourse Mid term   Friday 4 Nov 7:00 - 8:30PM (90 minutes)  Room AC223, BV260   Check to make sure you have a functioning email associated with Blackboard   TA contacts on Blackboard   Direct inquiries to your respective TA   Discussion on Blackboard will start next week   Discussion will take place within your tutorial group   Subscribing to the forum Lecture objectives 1.  Understanding the power of language and words in shaping behaviour (Linking normative view with policy making) 2. Look at the historical roots of how we came to view “development” today 3. Understand how “underdevelopment” as a social construct was invented 4. Uncovering the assumptions of the dominant view and argue why alternatives are not only possible, but necessary http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/4112969/IDSA01_2011 http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/2467734/IDSA01-1 1 9/22/11 http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=39577&Cr=mdg&Cr1= Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): Where do they come from and what do they represent? Times Magazine 2005 http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2010/09/20/un-millenium-development-goals.html 2 9/22/11 http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/07/25/f-famine-somalia-analysis.html 9/22/11 IDSA01H3 IDSA01H3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pXWIUg30Cpk 13 IDSA01H3 9/22/11 14 9/22/11 15 IDSA01H3 9/22/11 16 The Social Construction of Development   Word matters   Representation, metaphor, conceptual inflation   Measurement Matters   But need to know why and what to measure Meanings and Representation   Language construct meanings through Representation   Knowledge is constructed   Knowledge is constructed through discourse   Historical context and Contingencies   Knowledge is power 3 9/22/11 Word Matters   Developing countries   Third world   Low and Middle income countries Why Development?   Global South   Universality   Freedom   Progress Historical roots   Enlightenment   Science and rationality   Inevitability   Social Evolution   Progress   Individual liberty 4 9/22/11   The Economic Imperative   The power of market   “Law of scarcity”   Supply and demand   Commodification   Conquest and domination   Consequences? Post WWII Paradigm Development theories Dependence Modernization "    Progress can’t be stopped, and all societies can go through it (Progress equal Westernization)   All Third World countries are alike in their social, economic and political conditions (Essentialism)   The central role of the state in identity formation and in driving progress (Nationalism)   Western societies as a model – emphasis on economic growth   Causes of underdevelopment inherent in the countries themselves   Focus on the nation-state   Emphasis on individual freedoms   Mass media accorded a central role in the development process   Vertical pattern of communication – from the elite to the people. "   World systems perspec7ve – development defined in terms of center and periphery "   Underdevelopment ascribed to the industrialized capitalist powers of the West "   Informa7on gaps – underdevelopment in the periphery is prerequisite to development in the center "   The mass media reinforce the dominance of the metropole over its satellites "   A country in the periphery must strive for self-­‐reliance and libera7on from the world system "   Emphasis on social equality. So are there alternatives? Changing the way we frame the questions and measure the outcomes 5 9/22/11 Internet users 2002 http://www.worldmapper.org/images/largepng/336.png http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:GDP_nominal_per_capita_world_map_IMF_2008.png 6 9/22/11 Happy Planet Index http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=169 How to decide what to measure? Human Development Index Education/ literacy   What is an appropriate indicator of development?   Where is the locus of measurement? e.g. How to measure “poverty”? Economic Opportunities/ GDP per capita Health/life expectancy Alternatives   Non-market based models of social organization   Capability and Rights-based approach to   ‘If it cannot be measured, it cannot be controlled’ Lord Kelvin development   New Commons (e.g. Open Source Drug Discovery, Open Access Knowledge Commons)   New Indicators (e.g. Happy Planet Index,   ‘Not everything that counts, can be counted, and, not everything that can be counted, counts’ Albert Einstein Sustainability Index, Corporate Responsibility Index, Good Governance Index, Digital Opportunity Index, etc.) 7 9/22/11 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course GEOGRAPHY GGRa02 taught by Professor Bunce during the Fall '12 term at University of Toronto.

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