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(PS 371) Chapter 3 Notes

(PS 371) Chapter 3 Notes - Chapter 3 Clinical Assessment...

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Chapter 3: Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis I. Assessing Psychological Disorders Process of clinical assessment and diagnosis are central to the study of psychopathology and, ultimately, to the treatment of psychological disorders. o Clinical Assessment- Systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder. o Diagnosis- Process of determining whether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder. II. Key Concepts in Assessment Process of clinical assessment in psychopathology similar to a funnel o Clinician gathers information across a broad range of the individual’s functioning to identify where the source of the problem may lie o After preliminary sense of overall functioning, narrows down focus by ruling out problems in some areas and concentrating on areas that seem most relevant Three basic concepts that help determine the value of our assessments o Reliability o Validity o Standardization Reliability- degree to which a measure is consistent. o i.e. Raters should be able to reach similar conclusions from the same set of symptoms Interrater Reliability- Degree to which two or more observers make the same ratings or measurements. Test-retest Reliability- Degree to which results of two administrations of a test to the same person are similar. Validity- Degree to which a technique measures what it purports to measure. o Concurrent (Descriptive) Validity- Condition of testing in which the results from one test correspond to the results of other measures of the same phenomenon. o Predictive Validity- Degree to which an assessment instrument accurately predicts a person's future behavior. See also criterion validity. (criterion validity Extent to which categorization accurately predicts the future course of a disorder, whether treated or untreated.) Standardization- Process of establishing Specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure it is used consistently across measurement occasions. This includes instructions for administering the measure, evaluating its findings, and comparing these to data for large numbers of people.
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III. The Clinical Interview The clinical interview gathers information on current and past behavior, attitudes, emotions, as well as a detailed history of the individual’s life in general and of the presenting problem Clinicians determine when problem started and identify other event that might have occurred around the same time; info on patient’s current and past interpersonal and social history (including family make-up), and individual’s upbringing. Info about sexual development, religious attitudes (current and past), cultural concerns/ stressors, and educational history are also routinely collected.
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