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Unformatted text preview: Electromagnetic Induction: Faraday's Law
OBJECTIVE: To understand how changing magnetic fields can produce electric
currents. To examine Lenz's Law and the derivative form of Faraday's Law.
EQUIPMENT: Circular Coils apparatus, PC sound card, FFTScope, magnet, paper
clip, cables INTRODUCTION: Have you ever wondered how a telephone works? You may recall
(perhaps in middle school or high school) that sound waves from your voice are
converted to electricity by the microphone and that electricity is converted back to
sound waves by the speaker, but how does that actually happen? Such inventions as the
telephone, electric generators, electric guitar pickups, electrical transformers, car cruise
controls, induction stoves and blood flow meters all exploit the fact that a changing
magnetic field can give rise to an electrical current, a phenomenon we call
electromagnetic induction. The mathematical law that relates the changing magnetic
field to the induced current (or, more accurately, the induced voltage or emf) is called
Faraday's Law, named after the man (among others) who first observed it in the
laboratory around 1830. You may recall from lecture that the magnetic flux through a surface (like the surface of
a conducting loop) that is immersed in a magnetic field B is = B A cos where is the angle between the magnetic field and the direction perpendicular to
the surface. A conducting loop which has an ammeter attached to it will register a
current if the magnetic flux through the loop changes in time. One way to change the
flux through a conducting loop is by moving a magnet in its vicinity. In the figure
below, a the North pole of a magnet is moved towards a conducting loop. As the
magnet approaches the loop, the magnetic field within the loop increases which means
the magnetic flux also increases. The changing magnetic flux in the loop will induce a
current in the direction shown in the figure. You could also move the North pole of the magnet away from the conducting loop
which would decrease the flux through the loop. Either way, a current would be
induced in the conducting loop because all that is needed is a change in the magnetic
flux. The difference between moving the North pole of the magnet towards the loop
and moving the North pole of the magnet away from the loop will manifest itself in the
direction of the induced current in the loop. You will learn about this later when you
explore Lenz's law.
Furthermore, moving the South pole of the magnet towards (away) the loop will induce
a current in the same direction as moving the North pole away (towards) the loop. You may also recall from lecture that current flowing through a loop of wire produces a
magnetic field similar to that of a magnet, and we can exploit this fact to create a
changing magnetic flux in a second conducting loop that is placed nearby. Consider the
situation shown in the figure below: Initially Loop 1 is connected to a battery by a
switch and the switch is initially open. Loop 2 is just a closed loop of wire that is near
Loop 1. In (a) there is no current flowing in either loop because the switch is open in
loop 1. When the switch is closed as shown in (b), the increasing current in loop 1
produces a changing magnetic field and thus a changing magnetic flux within loop 2.
This changing magnetic flux will induce a current in loop 2 even though there is no
battery directly connected to it! More precisely, Faraday noted that the emf induced in a loop is proportional to the rate
of change of magnetic flux though it:
=− N d
dt where is the electromotive force induced (measured in volts) and N is the number
of turns of the coil. Provided each turn of the coil is sized and oriented like the others,
its contribution is simply additive; hence the coefficient N in front of the flux derivative.
Notice the negative sign. Lenz's Law states that the induced emf (and current) will be
in a direction such that the induced magnetic field opposes the original magnetic flux
change. Keep in mind that the induced current will now produce an induced magnetic
field. The direction of that magnetic field will be opposite to the direction the flux is
Examine the apparatus. There are three sets of coils, two of which are fixed with
respect to each other (wrapped in black tape) and which share the same number of turns
and diameter. These two coils (total number of turns N=20) act in concert with each
other, each producing a magnetic field in the same direction. These outer coils produce
a fairly uniform magnetic field inside the apparatus – recall the Helmholtz Coils setup
from the E&M Forces lab that generated a field that remained constant throughout the
path of the electron beam.
The third inner coil (total number of turns N=11) is more rectangular than circular,
smaller than the other two, and can be rotated with respect to them using the knob on
the side of the apparatus. There are protractor markings around the knob to measure the
angle between inner and outer coils. The FFTScope software, which controls the PC's
sound card, will act as a signal generator. It will be used to drive the outer coils with a
periodic waveform that will produce a changing magnetic flux, inducing a current in the
inner coil. You can also induce a current manually (signal generator off) by moving a
small magnet close to the inner coil. In both cases, you will use FFTScope to examine
the induced current in the inner coils. PROCEDURE:
NOTE: DO NOT DISCONNECT OR CHANGE THE APPARATUS WIRING.
PLEASE EXERCISE CARE WITH THE COIL APPARATUS. TURNING THE
ANGLE KNOB TOO MUCH IN ONE DIRECTION MAY DAMAGE THE WIRES!
A. Induction by moving a permanent magnet
You will induce an emf in the small coil manually, creating a changing flux through the
small coil by moving the magnet's magnetic field through it.
1. Examine the small magnet on your table. One side of the disk corresponds to
magnetic North, the other to South. Draw a diagram of the magnet, sketching magnetic
field lines. Choose North and South poles on the magnet arbitrarily, and put arrows on
the lines corresponding to your choice. Remember that field lines represent lines of
force; the more closely together the lines are drawn, the stronger the magnetic force is at
that point. If you do not have a clue, pick up the paper clip with one hand, hold the
magnet with the other hand, and try to get a rough idea of where around the magnet the
clip feels the most force. Draw your diagram on the hand-in sheet. 2. Rotate the knob on the side of the apparatus so that the angle marker is set to 0 or
180o. This should orient the plane of the inner coil parallel to the table.
3. Open FFTScope, which is in the Lab Software folder on the Desktop. Below are
important buttons you will use in the FFTScope toolbar:
4. Turn data acquisition ON by pressing the GO/STOP button in the toolbar. You
should see the message “DATA acquisition ON” on the lower left-hand corner of the
FFTScope window. Click the autoscale button once – you will see random noise
because the scale has been minimize. Click on the EXPAND button twice to expand the scale – you will need some headroom in the graph since you are about to induce a
signal, using the small magnet.
5. Pick up the small magnet by the sides and hold it such that the plane of the disk is
horizontal. Now position it right above the inner coil of the apparatus, without
touching. Pull the magnet quickly upwards, while watching the trace on the FFTScope
screen. Does the emf pulse trace go up or down? ______________ Record in hand-in sheet.
6. Flip the magnet over such that the side you previously had up is now down. If you
repeated Step 5, which way would expect the pulse to move? Discuss this with your lab
partner before proceeding. Record in hand-in sheet.
Repeat Step 5. Which way did the pulse actually move? Again, record in hand-in sheet.
7. Keeping the same magnet orientation in the previous step, try rotating the inner coil
180o and again pulling the magnet upwards from it. Which way does the pulse move
now? Record in hand-in sheet.
8. Try to get a rough estimate of emf pulse height – count the number of horizontal grid
lines (and fractions thereof) on the FFTScope screen the pulse moves away from the
baseline when you pull the magnet away. What was the maximum pulse height (in grid
lines) that you could momentarily generate on the inner coil? (Record)
9. Now orient the inner coil such that its plane is vertical, i.e. 90o with respect to the
table, and plane of inner coils. Pull the magnet away from the coil again.
What was the maximum pulse height (in grid lines) that you could momentarily
generate on the inner coil? Record.
If you moved the magnet the same way you did before, why is this pulse height
In this section we have physically moved a magnet in the vicinity of a coil, inducing a
current in it. In order to do this we have performed work on the magnet because we had
to oppose a force in order to keep the magnet moving, even at constant velocity. What
is the source of this force? According to Lenz's Law, the induced current produces an induced magnetic field, which is represented by a magnetic moment (denoted by m on
the diagram below, which opposes the motion of the magnet. This magnetic moment
can be thought of as "virtual magnet" whose poles either oppose or attract the real
magnet, depending on the direction of motion. In either case, the direction of induced
current can be identified using your right hand: point your extended thumb in the North
direction of the magnetic moment; your fingers will curl in the direction the current is
going through the loop. Doing work on a magnet to create a current is the basis behind an electrical generator.
In hydroelectric dams, falling water turns large paddles connected to electrical
generators that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. Conversely, we can use
changing flux to do work. This is the principle behind an electric motor. B. Induction by varying the current
You will now induce an emf in the smaller coil using a changing magnetic field
supplied by the outer coils. There will be no motion of the coils involved. The signal
generator will provide the outer coils with a fluctuating current to vary the magnetic
field, and hence the magnetic flux, through the inner coils. The fluctuating current will
be sinusoidal, triangular or square in waveform shape.
1. Predict what the response waveforms will look like for sine, triangle and square
driving waves. Think of the mathematical relationship between magnetic flux (driving
signal) and induced emf (response signal). Draw predicted waveforms in your hand-in
2. In FFTScope, go to Function Generator in the menu bar. It should be set to Silent.
Change it to Sine. Click on the STEREO/MONO button to simultaneously view both
driving waveform (blue) and induced waveform (red) the GO button. Press Autoscale to see the entire wave height. Click and drag a rectangle across a portion of the graph –
this will “zoom in” on the waveforms, making them appear less compressed in the
horizontal direction. You may have to Autoscale again after this. If you zoomed in too
much, you can press the RESTORE button in the toolbar. Remember that you can
always “freeze” the scope waveforms for closer inspection by clicking the
GO/STOP button on the toolbar. Why doesn't the response waveform look “perfect”? There may be a significant
distortion of the waveform due to the inductance of the two circuits (see the section on
inductance your textbook). You may also notice some "squiggly" oscillations near the
edge of the waveform, especially with the square wave – this is due to the slight
capacitance in the coil (recall the oscillatory behavior of an RC circuit). 3. Switch to the other waveforms – triangle, square. Quickly check that the frequency
and amplitude (driving signal only) remain the same as you toggle between them; only
the shape changes. If you are seeing a noisy signal when you Autoscale, turn up the
volume knob on the PC speakers; however, if you are getting flat-topped driving
waveforms, you are overloading the sound card input - turn down the volume
4. Sketch the induced response for the sine, square and triangular waveforms on the
5. Examine the graphs you just drew. What is the general relationship between the
driving and induced waveforms? Write your answer on the hand-in sheet. Think of the
mathematical relationship between magnetic flux and the emf and note that spikes in the
graph represent a very rapid rate of change.
6. Let us now check how the magnetic flux through the smaller coil changes as we
rotate it within the fairly uniform field of the outer coils. Increase the frequency to 5000
Hz by pressing F9 on keyboard and entering this value; this will give more sensitivity in
the measurement of the response amplitude. Don't worry about the stability of the scope
trace; we are only interested in examining the amplitude as a function of angle. Start off
with an inner coil angle of 0o (coil plane parallel to table) – go up to View in the menu
bar, and at the very bottom of the menu select “View peak-to-peak amplitude”. This
will display two successive values: a number for R channel (driving) and a number for L
channel (response). Record L, the peak-to peak amplitude. Vary the relative angle
between inner and outer coils from 0o to 360o in 15o steps, each time recording the peak- to-peak amplitude. Record in hand-in sheet. You can plot Amplitude vs. Angle by
printing out the graph page (last page), or you can plot in Graphical Analysis.
Faraday's Law is the basic principle behind the simple telephone. In a microphone there
is a diaphragm, around which a coil is wrapped, which can move back and forth in
response to sound waves. A stationary bar magnet, placed near the coil, induces current
in the coil which can then be transmitted (with amplification) to the speaker of another
telephone. Conversely, when the current reaches the speaker, which consists of another
coil/diaphragm/magnet combination, the varying coil current causes the diaphragm to
move and displace sound waves: Another direct application of Faraday's Law is a transformer. If the two sets of coils 1
and 2 similar to what you just used were of the same size, we can either increase or
decrease voltage by varying the number of turns according to this equation:
V 2=− N2
N1 1 High-voltage transformers are used in conveying electricity from your electrical
company to your home. Since power loss on the lines is equal to I2R, it makes sense to
use a high voltage and low current when transporting power over great distances.
Conversely, for safety reasons, low voltage and higher current is used in the home. ...
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