Chap007st - Chapter 07 - Design of Work Systems CHAPTER 7:...

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Chapter 07 - Design of Work Systems CHAPTER 7: DESIGN OF WORK SYSTEMS Answers to Discussion and Review Questions 1. Job design is concerned with specifying the contents and methods of jobs. It is important because it has a significant impact on the efficiency and productivity of workers. 2. From the standpoint of management, having workers with specialized skills can substantially lower the total cost of a product and also requires less training. The disadvantages for management include the following: a) Workers may be somewhat inflexible in terms of the functions they can perform. b) They are more likely to have less motivation, and higher absenteeism. From the standpoint of workers, the advantages include clearer job responsibility and requirements that are easier to understand. The disadvantage for the workers is that the specialized tasks can become monotonous and boring, causing a lack of fulfillment. 3. a. Job enlargement involves assigning a larger portion of a task to a worker (i.e., horizontal loading). Job enrichment involves an increase in the level of responsibility for planning and coordinating tasks (i.e., vertical loading). b. Both job enlargement and job enrichment are intended to motivate workers and improve morale by making work more interesting and challenging to workers, and helping them to feel they have an important part in the work system. 4. a. Ergonomics is the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to job design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. Poor ergonomics can cause fatigue and injury, and negatively affect quality and productivity. b. With poor economics, workers can be in pain, fatigued, or otherwise uncomfortable. 5. It is a pay system used by organizations to reward workers who undergo training that increases their skills. It is a portion of a worker’s pay that is based on the knowledge and skill the worker possesses. Knowledge-based pay has three dimensions: Horizontal skills reflect the variety of tasks the worker is capable of performing; Vertical skills reflect management tasks the worker is capable of; and Depth skills reflect quality and productivity results. 6. a. Self-directed work teams or self-managed teams are designed to achieve a higher level of teamwork and employee involvement. They are typically empowered to make changes in the work processes under their control since they are closer to the
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Chap007st - Chapter 07 - Design of Work Systems CHAPTER 7:...

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