Unformatted text preview: Encoding/decoding Encoding/decoding and Audiences
Stuart Hall & McIntosh Encoding/Decoding Model
From Stuart Hall, of the Birmingham School of Cultural Studies Encoding: “the mass media ‘encode’ reality…[using] the real world as raw material, and is made to signify in specific ways by technical conventions of media production, which may or may not complement the interests of powerful social groups” (Ruddock, 2001, p. 124). Encoding/Decoding Model
Encoding/Decoding Model Decoding: the process of interpretation done on the part of the audience; however, the audience must have “access to the right interpretative guide” (Ruddock, 2001, p. 124)
… The Arnolfini Portrait (
The Arnolfini Portrait
Jan van Eyck, 1434) Upgrade U (Beyonce’, 2006)
Upgrade U Different reading positions
Different reading positions Preferred/Dominant Negotiated Viewers who fully subscribe to rulingclass discourse interpret TV according to the preferred reading that is encoded into the message.
The most common—permits the dominant discourse to set the ideological ground rules, but modifies those rules according to personal experience. Oppositional Viewers fully reject the preferred reading of the text, using their own interpretation. When considering audiences…
When considering audiences… Do you think that we are strong/media are weak or that the media are strong/audiences are weak? Consider our viewing /reading selections
Consider how we participate while viewing/reading
What message(s) do we take away from our media?
Are we weak/strong depending on the media context?
Are audiences weak/strong depending our (their) context? Remember how we talked about social location..? Discussion for McIntosh
Discussion for McIntosh What is meant by White privilege? Provide some examples. Can you add any others? Explain how McIntosh’s social location initially allowed her to be oblivious to her White privilege(s).
What does McIntosh argue is/are the answer(s) to White privilege and conferred dominance? ...
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- Spring '12
- Mass Media, Different reading positions