L10-CVD_b - Chemical Vapor Deposition (cont.) CVD Reactor...

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Chemical Vapor Deposition (cont.)
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CVD Reactor Notes The kinetics of your reaction mostly determines the choice of the reactor type. Mass transport limited growth (high T): Should be able to control gas flow and pressure to get uniform films Reaction rate limited growth (low T, low P): Should be able to control the temperature profile for uniform films
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CVD Reactor Types by Architecture Tube reactors Showerhead reactors High-density plasma reactors Linear injection reactors
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Tube Reactors Hot wall design (the reactor walls are heated). Can be horizontal or vertical. Batch processing of wafers Good radial uniformity of films Axial uniformity more suspect Need to slow down deposition rates for axial uniformity.
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Showerhead Reactors Cold wall design (only substrate is heated) Better suited for plasma enhanced processing. Generally a single wafer design. Good heater design is needed for radial uniformity.
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CVD Reactor Types by Process APCVD – Atmospheric Pressure CVD LPCVD – Low Pressure CVD MOCVD – Metalorganic CVD PHCVD – Photon (Laser) Induced CVD PECVD – Plasma Enhanced CVD
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Thermal CVD Processes Heat energy is supplied to activate the required gas and gas-solid phase reactions. There are many possible classifications to the thermal CVD processes: High or low temperature Atmospheric or low pressure Cold or hot wall Closed or open. Still all of them have to be able to, deliver the reactant gases to the reactor, supply heat to the substrates for efficient deposition and remove the by-products.
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Atmospheric Pressure CVD High Temperature APCVD Used to deposit epitaxial Si and compound films (cold wall reactors) or hard metallurgical coatings like TiC and TiN (hot wall reactors). Cold Wall Reactor wafers tilted for uniform deposition Hot Wall Reactor
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Atmospheric Pressure CVD Low Temperature APCVD Many insulating film layers (SiO 2 , BPSG glasses) need to be deposited at low temperatures.
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L10-CVD_b - Chemical Vapor Deposition (cont.) CVD Reactor...

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