8-A - Chapter 8 Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy Chemistry...

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C h a p t e r 8 Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy Chemistry 5th Edition McMurry/Fay
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2 Thermodynamics Energy: is the capacity to do work, or supply heat. Energy = Work + Heat Kinetic Energy: is the energy of motion. E K = 1 / 2 mv 2 (1 Joule = 1 kg m 2 /s 2 ) (1 calorie = 4.184 J) Potential Energy: is stored energy.
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3 Thermodynamics Thermal Energy is the kinetic energy of molecular motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational). Thermal energy is proportional to the temperature in degrees Kelvin. E thermal α T (K) Heat is the amount of thermal energy transferred between two objects at different temperatures.
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4 Thermodynamics In an experiment: Reactants and products are the system ; everything else is the surroundings . Energy flow from the system to the surroundings has a negative sign (loss of energy). Energy flow from the surroundings to the system has a positive sign (gain of energy).
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5 Thermodynamics Closed System: Only energy can be lost or gained. Isolated System: No matter or energy is exchanged.
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6 First Law of Thermodynamics The law of the conservation of energy: Energy cannot be created or destroyed. The energy of an isolated system must be constant. The energy change in a system equals the work done on the system + the heat added. E = E final E initial = E 2 E 1 = q + w q = heat, w = work
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7 Enthalpy Changes Enthalpies of Physical Change:
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8 Enthalpy Changes Enthalpies of Chemical Change: Often called heats of reaction ( H reaction ). Endothermic:
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8-A - Chapter 8 Thermochemistry: Chemical Energy Chemistry...

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