Chapter3plusCausationEthics - Chapter 3: Experimental and...

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1 Chapter 3: Experimental and Sampling Design, Ethics Section 2.6: The Question of Causation Learning goals for this chapter: Identify unit/subject, sample, population, treatment, factors and levels, and response variable from a story. Recognize whether a story is an experiment, observational study, or anecdotal evidence. Explain the difference between population and sample and between taking a census and sampling. Decide the correct type of sampling used in a story and explain the benefits/drawbacks of each: voluntary response, simple random sample (SRS), stratified random sample, multistage random sample, catch and release sample. Explain and identify sources of sampling bias: undercoverage, nonresponse, response bias. Discuss sampling variability and bias and how to reduce them. Understand the difference between a parameter and a statistic. Explain what a sampling distribution is. Know the 3 principles of experimental design: randomization, replication, and control group. Talk about lurking variables, placebos, control groups, the placebo effect, and double-blind experiments in context. Identify and outline the specific type of experimental design in a story: completely randomized, randomized block, matched pairs. Use SPSS for random selection (sampling) or assignment (experiment). Know the difference between causation, confounding, and common response when applied to a specific story. Explain the ethics of experimental design with humans (in context): review board, informed consent, individual data kept confidential. Explain the ethics of experimental design with animals (in context): replacement, reduction, refinement (3 Rs).
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2 Overview of how to answer a research question: 1. Pick a specific question to answer. 2. Decide on the population. 3. Select a sample. The choices for this class are: voluntary response (the only one not random, not the best) simple random sample stratified random sample multistage sample catch-and-release sample 4. Observational study or experiment? If observational study, just state the sampling design. If experiment, the choices for this class are: completely randomized design block design matched pairs 5. Collect the data. 6. Analyze the data. Important to look at graphs first. 7. State conclusions. What can go wrong? sampling (bias, nonresponse, undercoverage, variability) experiment (not using a control, not randomizing, not replicating, lurking variables) survey (unclear or biased wording, sampling design, date) Causation is not the same thing as association! Causation Confounding Common response Principles of Ethical Experiments with Humans Planned studies should be reviewed by a board to protect subjects from harm. All subjects must give their
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Chapter3plusCausationEthics - Chapter 3: Experimental and...

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