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Unformatted text preview: Basic Laws of Electrical Engineering Theory Introduction to Network Theory Sinusoidal Steady State Response Using Laplace Transform for Time Domain Analysis Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey School of Engineering D epartm ent of E lectrical and C om puter E ngineering Procedure Manual for Elem ents of E lectrical Engineering L ab o rato ry 14 :3 3 2 :3 7 5 B 126 B 127 B 128 B 129 B  130 At S S Bi 26 RUTGERS UNIVERSITY The State University of New Jersey College of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 330:375 Elements of Electrical Engineering Laboratory Fxperiment 1 Basic Laws of Electrical Engineering Theory The purpose of this first lab is to familiarize yourself with some of the equipment you will be using throughout the remainder of the semester, and to introduce you to the basic laws which govern electrical engineering theory. 1.1 Voltage and Current Relations in Unear and Nonlinear Passive Elements Passive elements (resistors, inductors, and capacitors) are those which cannot generate electrical energy. In a passive linear element, such as a resistor, voltage and current are directly and linearly related. The relationship between voltage and current in a resistor may be expressed by Ohm’s Law where: V=IR. Only one reading of voltage and current need be taken to graph the V/I characteristics of a passive linear element. With a nonlinear passive element a number of voltage and current readings must be made in order to graph the nonlinear V/I characteristics. The nonlinear passive element that Will be studied in this lab is a diode. A diode acts like a voltage controlld switch. When the positive voltage drop across the diode, known as the forward voltage, is greater than some threshold voltage, the diode has zero resistance and will conduct current. At voltages less than this threshold voltage, the diode acts as an open circuit with infinite resistance, and no current will flow. 1 I 1.2 Voltage Divider Rule The voltage dMder rul• is based upon the fundamental laws developed by Gustav Klrchholf in 1848 and by Ge orge Simon Ohm in the early 1800’s. From Kirchhoffs laws, we know that resistors (or more generally, elements) in senes carry the same current, and that voltage drop is th . sa me across parallel elements. According to Kirchholf’s laws, the current i In figu re 1 must flow through both series rs lstances Ri and R2. I Figure 1 According to Ohm’s law, V jR We are able to find an e xpression for V , Vo—iR2. Using Ohm’s law, we are also able to express i in term s of the input sou rce voltage, V: . V ( R i .R 2 ) Putting these tw o equations together, weobtain the voltage divider rule, namely that: V R2 V i i i (Ri + R2) R2— (Ri + R2) V. This stat es tha t the voltage appeanng across one series resistor R2 is equal to a fraction of the input source voltage, where that fraction is equal to the ratio of R2 to the sum of Ri and R2. V RI R2 2 Figure...
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This note was uploaded on 02/29/2012 for the course 332 373 taught by Professor Shoane during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.
 Fall '09
 SHOANE

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