{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Week+3+Lecture - Social Learning and Culture Last week(and...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Social Learning and Culture Last week (and just now) I argued that the answer to human nature is in our evolutionary history The rest of today is all about nurture
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The classic debate in psychology Does nature or nurture determine who we are? Are we born tablua rosa? Or does our genetic makeup decide our destiny? In 2011, these simple (false choice) questions no longer make sense. Scientists across disciplines agree: it is the *interaction* of our genes and the environment that produce our phenotypes (e.g., personality). +/x =
Image of page 2
Ken’s favorite starting point Descartes’ mind-body dualism Animals as automata Reflex arcs (S-R) can explain automatic behaviors But then there’s that pineal gland…
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Mechanistic philosophies
Image of page 4
Enter Ivan Pavlov Father was a village priest Seminary life Read On The Origin of Species Abandoned religious career to study physics and math Studied physiology (particularly digestion) 1849-1936
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Design Put food in the dog’s mouth and monitored the amount of salivation and digestive juices. Ran into a problem. Dog began to salivate it they saw Pavlov and before food was placed in the mouth. Had to figure out what was going on before going back to work on digestion.
Image of page 6
Results If you take an arbitrary stimulus (one that does not evoke an innate automatic response) A BELL AND Pair it with a non-arbitrary stimulus (one that causes an automatic response) FOOD The pairing will induce a response to the arbitrary stimulus (BELL) that the organism has not made before
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Terminology Remember, theories should have conceptual terminology to help us precisely understand the concepts. Pavlov called the arbitrary stimulus (the bell) the conditioned stimulus. He called the non-arbitrary stimulus (food) the unconditioned stimulus Responses are categorized the same way The food (unconditioned stimulus) elicited an unconditioned response (food salivation) The new response, which existed only after the conditioning, is the conditioned response (bell salivation)
Image of page 8
Watson, Rayner, and poor Albert Perhaps the most famous example of classical conditioning Rabbit Gong Fear Rabbit Fear Generalization: Albert came to feared not only rats, but many furry white objects
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Classical conditioning Classical conditioning can be used to explain emotional aspects of personality e.g., neurotic behavior, phobias, superstitious behavior Higher-order conditioning : CS come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned. Albert may have also felt an aversion to the smell of a particular perfume, which his mother always wore when bringing him to the laboratory.
Image of page 10
Enter B.F. Skinner Burrhus Frederic "Fred" Skinner Born in Pennsylvania As a child, liked the outdoors and building things Went to school to be a writer After graduating…the “dark year” "I had nothing important to say" Back to school for psychology after reading Pavlov & Watson
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern