Week+3+Lecture - Social Learning and Culture Last week (and...

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Social Learning and Culture Last week (and just now) I argued that the answer to human nature is in our evolutionary history The rest of today is all about nurture
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The classic debate in psychology Does nature or nurture determine who we are? Are we born tablua rosa? Or does our genetic makeup decide our destiny? In 2011, these simple (false choice) questions no longer make sense. Scientists across disciplines agree: it is the *interaction* of our genes and the environment that produce our phenotypes (e.g., personality). +/x =
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Ken’s favorite starting point Descartes’ mind-body dualism Animals as automata Reflex arcs (S-R) can explain automatic behaviors But then there’s that pineal gland…
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Mechanistic philosophies
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Enter Ivan Pavlov Father was a village priest Seminary life Read On The Origin of Species Abandoned religious career to study physics and math Studied physiology (particularly digestion) 1849-1936
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Design Put food in the dog’s mouth and monitored the amount of salivation and digestive juices. Ran into a problem. Dog began to salivate it they saw Pavlov and before food was placed in the mouth. Had to figure out what was going on before going back to work on digestion.
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Results If you take an arbitrary stimulus (one that does not evoke an innate automatic response) A BELL AND Pair it with a non-arbitrary stimulus (one that causes an automatic response) FOOD The pairing will induce a response to the arbitrary stimulus (BELL) that the organism has not made before
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Terminology Remember, theories should have conceptual terminology to help us precisely understand the concepts. Pavlov called the arbitrary stimulus (the bell) the conditioned stimulus. He called the non-arbitrary stimulus (food) the unconditioned stimulus Responses are categorized the same way The food (unconditioned stimulus) elicited an unconditioned response (food salivation) The new response, which existed only after the conditioning, is the conditioned response (bell salivation)
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Watson, Rayner, and poor Albert Perhaps the most famous example of classical conditioning Rabbit Gong Fear Rabbit Fear Generalization: Albert came to feared not only rats, but many furry white objects
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Classical conditioning Classical conditioning can be used to explain emotional aspects of personality e.g., neurotic behavior, phobias, superstitious behavior Higher-order conditioning : CS come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned. Albert may have also felt an aversion to the smell of a particular perfume, which his mother always wore when bringing him to the laboratory.
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Burrhus Frederic "Fred" Skinner Born in Pennsylvania As a child, liked the outdoors and building things Went to school to be a writer After graduating…the “dark year”
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course PPE 3003 taught by Professor Kenswan during the Spring '12 term at University of Florida.

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Week+3+Lecture - Social Learning and Culture Last week (and...

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