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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 3 Sprinkler Characteristics
I. Hardware Design Process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5. Sprinkler selection
Design of the system layout
Design of the laterals
Design of the mainline
Pump and power unit selection II. Classification of Sprinklers and Applicability
(see Table 5.1 from the textbook)
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• • Agricultural sprinklers typically have flow rates from 4 to 45 lpm (1 to 12
gpm), at nozzle pressures of 135 to 700 kPa (20 to 100 psi)
“Gun” sprinklers may have flow rates up to 2,000 lpm (500 gpm; 33 lps) or
more, at pressures up to 750 kPa (110 psi) or more
Sprinklers with higher manufacturer design pressures tend to have larger
wetted diameters
But, deviations from manufacturer’s recommended pressure may have the
opposite effect (increase in pressure, decrease in diameter), and uniformity
will probably be compromised
Sprinklers are usually made of plastic, brass, and or steel
Low pressure nozzles save pumping costs, but tend to have large drop sizes
and high application rates
Medium pressure sprinklers (210  410 kPa, or 30 to 60 psi) tend to have the
best application uniformity
Medium pressure sprinklers also tend to have the lowest minimum
application rates
High pressure sprinklers have high pumping costs, but when used in
periodicmove systems can cover a large area at each set
High pressure sprinklers have high application rates
Rotating sprinklers have lower application rates because the water is only
wetting a “sector” (not a full circle) at any given instance...
For the same pressure and discharge, rotating sprinklers have larger wetted
diameters
Impact sprinklers always rotate; the “impact” action on the stream of water is
designed to provide acceptable uniformity, given that much of the water
would otherwise fall far from the sprinkler (the arm breaks up part of the
stream)
Check out Web sites such as www.rainbird.com Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 25 Merkley & Allen III. Precipitation Profiles
• Typical examples of low, correct, and high sprinkler pressures (see Fig 5.5). Pressure is too low Pressure is OK Pressure is too high The precipitation profile (and uniformity) is a function of many factors:
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8. lateral • Straightening vanes can be used to compensate for consistently windy
conditions
Overlapping sprinkler profiles (see Fig. 5.7) Merkley & Allen uniform! Page 26 uniform! lateral • nozzle pressure
nozzle shape & size
sprinkler head design
presence of straightening vanes
sprinkler rotation speed
trajectory angle
riser height
wind lateral • Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures • Simulate different lateral spacings by “overlapping” catchcan data in the
direction of lateral movement (overlapping along the lateral is automatically
included in the catchcan data, unless it’s just one sprinkler) IV. Field Evaluation of Sprinklers
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• Catchcan tests are typically conducted to evaluate the uniformities of
installed sprinkler systems and manufacturers’ products
Catchcan data is often overlapped for various sprinkler and lateral spacings
to evaluate uniformities for design and management purposes
A computer program developed at USU does the overlapping: CATCH3D;
you can also use a spreadsheet program to simulate overlapping (e.g. CtrlC,
Edit  Paste Special, Operation: Add)
Note that catchcan tests represent a specific wind and pressure situation
and must be repeated to obtain information for other pressures or wind
conditions
Typical catchcan spacings are 2 or 3 m on a square grid, or 1 to 2 m
spacings along one or more “radial legs”, with the sprinkler in the center
Set up cans with half spacing from sprinklers (in both axes) to facilitate
overlap calculations
See Merriam & Keller (1978); also see ASAE S398.1 and ASAE S436 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 27 Merkley & Allen V. Choosing a Sprinkler
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• the system designer doesn’t “design” a sprinkler, but “selects” a sprinkler
there are hundreds of sprinkler designs and variations from several
manufacturers, and new sprinklers appear on the market often
the system designer often must choose between different nozzle sizes and
nozzle designs for a given sprinkler head design
the objective is to combine sprinkler selection with Se and Sl to provide
acceptable application uniformity, acceptable pumping costs, and acceptable
hardware costs
manufacturers provide recommended spacings and pressures
there are special sprinklers designed for use in frost control VI. Windy Conditions
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• When winds are consistently recurring at some specific hour, the system can
be shut down during this period (T in Eq. 5.4 is reduced)
For center pivots, rotation should not be a multiple of 24 hours, even if there
is no appreciable wind (evaporation during day, much less at night)
If winds consistently occur, special straightening vanes can be used
upstream of the sprinkler nozzles to reduce turbulence; wind is responsible
for breaking up the stream, so under calm conditions the uniformity could
decrease
For periodicmove systems, laterals should be moved in same direction as
prevailing winds to achieve greater uniformity (because Se < Sl)
Laterals should also move in the direction of wind to mitigate problems of salt
accumulating on plant leaves
Wind can be a major factor on the application uniformity on soils with low
infiltration rates (i.e. low application rates and small drop sizes)
In windy areas with periodicmove sprinkler systems, the use of offset
laterals (½Sl) may significantly increase application uniformity
Alternating the time of day of lateral operation in each place in the field may
also improve uniformity under windy conditions
Occasionally, wind can help increase uniformity, as the randomness of wind
turbulence and gusts helps to smooth out the precipitation profile Wind effects on the diameter of throw:
03 mph wind: reduce manufacturer’s listed diameter of throw by 10% for an
effective value (i.e. the diameter where the application of
water is significant) over 3 mph wind: reduce manufacturer’s listed diameter of throw by an
additional 2.5% for every 1 mph above 3 mph (5.6% for every
1 m/s over 1.34 m/s)
Merkley & Allen Page 28 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures In equation form:
For 03 mph (01.34 m/s): diam = 0.9 diammanuf (20) For > 3 mph (> 1.34 m/s): ( ) diam = diammanuf ⎡0.9 − 0.025 windmph − 3 ⎤
⎣
⎦
or, (21) diam = diammanuf ⎡0.9 − 0.056 ( windm / s − 1.34 ) ⎤
⎣
⎦ (22) Example: a manufacturer gives an 80ft diameter of throw for a certain sprinkler
and operating pressure. For a 5 mph wind, what is the effective diameter?
80 ft  (0.10)(0.80) = 72 ft (23) 72 ft  (5 mph  3 mph)(0.025)(72 ft) = 68 ft (24) diam = 80(0.90.025(53))=68 ft (25) or,
VII. General Spacing Recommendations
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• Sprinkler spacing is usually
rectangular or triangular
Triangular spacing is more common
under fixedsystem sprinklers
Sprinkler spacings based on average
(moderate) wind speeds:
1. Rectangular spacing is 40% (Se)
by 67% (Sl) of the effective
diameter
2. Square spacing is 50% of the
effective diameter
3. Equilateral triangle spacing is
62% of the effective diameter
[lateral spacing is 0.62 cos (60°/2)
= 0.54, or 54% of the effective
diameter, Deffec] • See Fig. 5.8 about profiles and spacings Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 29 Merkley & Allen VIII. PressureDischarge Relationship
• Equation 5.1: q = Kd P (26) where q is the sprinkler flow rate; Kd is an empirical coefficient; and P is the
nozzle pressure
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• The above equation is for a simple round orifice nozzle
Eq. 5.1 can be derived from Bernoulli’s equation like this: P V2
q2
=
=
γ 2g 2gA 2 (27) 2gA 2P
= Kd P = q
ρg (28) where the elevations are the same (z1 = z2) and the conversion through the
nozzle is assumed to be all pressure to all velocity
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• P can be replaced by H (head), but the value of Kd will be different
Eq. 5.1 is accurate within a certain range of pressures
See Table 5.2 for P, q, and Kd relationships • Kd can be separated into an orifice coefficient, Ko, and nozzle bore area, A: q = KoA P (29) Ko = 2 / ρ (30) whereby, where the value of Ko is fairly consistent across nozzle sizes for a specific
model and manufacturer Merkley & Allen Page 30 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures • From Table 5.2 in the textbook, the values of Ko are as follows:
Flow Rate
q
lps
lps
lpm
lpm
gpm
gpm •
• Head or Pressure
H or P
m
kPa
m
kPa
ft
psi •
• Ko
0.00443
0.00137
0.258
0.0824
24.2
36.8 Similar values can be determined from manufacturer’s technical information
Note also that nozzle diameter (bore) can be determined by rearranging the
above equation as follows: d=
• Nozzle Bore
d
mm
mm
mm
mm
inch
inch 4q
πK o P (31) The value of d can then be rounded up to the nearest available diameter
(64ths of an inch, or mm)
Then, either P or q are adjusted as necessary in the irrigation system design
Below is a sample pressure versus discharge table for a RainBird© sprinkler Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 31 Merkley & Allen Application Rates
I. Flow Control Nozzles
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• More expensive than regular nozzles
(compare $0.60 for a brass nozzle to
about $2.70 for a flow control nozzle)
May require more frequent
maintenance
The orifice has a flexible ring that
decreases the opening with higher
pressures, whereby the value of A P in the equation remains
approximately constant
It can be less expensive to design
laterals and mainline so that these types of nozzles are not required, but this
is not always the case
FCNs are specified for nominal discharges (4, 4.5, 4.8, 5.0 gpm, etc.)
The manufacturer’s coefficient of variation is about ±5% of q; don’t use FCNs
unless pressure variation is greater than about 10% (along lateral and for
different lateral positions) 1.10P ≈ 1.05 P (32) II. LowPressure Sprinklers
1. Pressure alone is not sufficient to break up the stream in a standard nozzle
design for acceptable application uniformity
2. Need some mechanical method to reduce drop sizes from the sprinkler:
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• pins that partially obstruct the stream of water
sharpedged orifices
triangular, rectangular, oval nozzle shapes 3. Some sprinkler companies have invested much into the design of such
devices for lowpressure sprinkler nozzles
4. Lowpressure nozzles can be more expensive, possibly with reduced
uniformity and increased application rate, but the tradeoff is in operating cost Merkley & Allen Page 32 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures III. Gross Application Depth d= dn
, for LR ≤ 0.1
Epa (33) where Epa is the “designer” application efficiency (decimal; Eq. 6.9). And, d=
• • • 0.9 dn
, for LR > 0.1
(1 − LR) Epa (34) The gross application depth is the total equivalent depth of water which must
be delivered to the field to replace (all or part of) the soil moisture deficit in
the root zone of the soil, plus any seepage, evaporation, spray drift, runoff
and deep percolation losses
The above equations for d presume that the first 10% of the leaching
requirement will be satisfied by the Epa (deep percolation losses due to
application variability). This presumes that areas which are underirrigated
during one irrigation will also be overirrigated in the following irrigation, or
that sufficient leaching will occur during nongrowing season (winter) months.
When the LR value is small (ECw ≤ ½ECe), leaching may be accomplished
both before and after the peak ET period, and the first equation (for LR ≤ 0.1)
can be used for design and sizing of system components. This will reduce
the required pipe and pump sizes because the “extra” system capacity during
the nonpeak ET periods is used to provide water for leaching. IV. System Capacity
• Application volume can be expressed as either Qt or Ad, where Q is flow
rate, t is time, A is irrigated area and d is gross application depth
Both terms are in units of volume
Thus, the system capacity is defined as (Eq. 5.4): •
• Qs = K Ad
fT (35) where,
Qs
T
K
d
f =
=
=
=
= system capacity;
hours of system operation per day (obviously, T≤ 24; also, t = fT)
coefficient for conversion of units (see below)
gross application depth (equals Ud/Eff during f’ period)
time to complete one irrigation (days); equal to f’ minus the days off
A = net irrigated area supplied by the discharge Qs
Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 33 Merkley & Allen Value of K:
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• Metric: for d in mm, A in ha, and Qs in lps:
K = 2.78
English: for d in inches, A in acres, and Qs in gpm: K = 453 Notes about system capacity:
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• • • • Eq. 5.4 is normally used for periodicmove and linearmove sprinkler
systems
The equation can also be used for center pivots if f is decimal days to
complete one revolution and d is the gross application depth per
revolution
For center pivot and solidset systems, irrigations can be light and
frequent (dapplied < d): soil water is maintained somewhat below field
capacity at all times (assuming no leaching requirement), and there is
very little deep percolation loss
Also, there is a margin of safety in the event that the pump fails (or the
system is temporarily out of operation for whatever reason) just when
MAD is reached (time to irrigate), because the soil water deficit is never
allowed to reach MAD
However, light and frequent irrigations are associated with higher
evaporative losses, and probably higher ET too (due to more optimal soil
moisture conditions). This corresponds to a higher basal crop coefficient
(Kcb + Ks), where Ks is increased, and possibly Kcb too.
When a solidset (fixed) system is used for frost control, all sprinklers
must operate simultaneously and the value of Qs is equal to the number
of sprinklers multiplied by qa. This tends to give a higher Qs than that
calculated from Eq. 5.4. V. Set Sprinkler Application Rate
• The average application rate is calculated as (after Eq. 5.5): I= 3600 q R e
SeSl (36) where I is the application rate (mm/hr); q is the flow rate (lps); Se is the
sprinkler spacing (m); Sl is the lateral spacing (m); and Re is the fraction of
water emitted by the nozzle that reaches the soil (takes into account the
evaporative/wind loss)
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• Re is defined in Chapter 6 of the textbook
The instantaneous application rate for a rotating sprinkler (after Eq. 5.6): Merkley & Allen Page 34 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Ii = 3600 q Re
⎛S ⎞
πR 2 ⎜ a ⎟
j
⎝ 360 ⎠ (37) where Ii is the application rate (mm/hr); Rj is the radius of throw, or wetted
radius (m); and Sa is the segment wetted by the sprinkler when the sprinkler
is not allowed to rotate (degrees)
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• •
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• Note that due to sprinkler overlap, the
instantaneous application rate may actually be
higher than that given by Ii above
For a nonrotating sprinkler, the instantaneous
application rate is equal to the average
application rate
For a rotating sprinkler, the instantaneous
y
pra
application rate may be allowed to exceed the
s
basic intake rate of the soil because excess
(ponded) water has a chance to infiltrate while the
sprinkler completes each rotation
See sample calculation 5.3 in the textbook
Higher pressures can give lower instantaneous application rates, but if the
wetted radius does not increase significantly with an increase in pressure,
the instantaneous rate may increase
The minimum tangential rotation speed at the periphery of the wetted area
should normally be about 1.5 m/s. For example, for 1 rpm: (1.5 m / s)(60 s / min)
= 14.3 m (radius)
(1 rev / min)(2π rad / rev )
•
• (38) Thus, a sprinkler with a wetted radius of 14.3 m should rotate at least 1
rpm
“Big gun” sprinklers can rotate slower than 1 rpm and still meet this
criterion VI. Intake & Optimum Application Rates
• Factors influencing the rate at which water should be applied:
1. Soil intake characteristics, field slope, and crop cover
2. Minimum application rate that will give acceptable uniformity
3. Practicalities regarding lateral movement in periodicmove systems Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 35 Merkley & Allen •
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• Impact of water drops on bare soil can cause “surface sealing” effects,
especially on heavytextured (clayey) soils
The result is a reduction in infiltration rate due to the formation of a semiimpermeable soil layer
Sprinklers typically produce drops from ½ to 5 mm
Terminal velocity of falling drops is from 2 to 22 m/s
Water drops from sprinklers typically reach their terminal velocity before
arriving at the soil surface (especially sprinklers with high risers)
See Tables 5.3 and 5.4 in the textbook V. Approximate Sprinkler Trajectory
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•
•
• • The trajectory of water from a sprinkler can be estimated according to
physics equations
The following analysis does not consider aerodynamic resistance nor wind
effects, and is applicable to the largest drops issuing from a sprinkler
operating under a recommended pressure
Of course, smaller water drops tend to fall nearer to the sprinkler
In the figure below, Rj refers to the approximate wetted radius of the sprinkler If the velocity in the vertical direction at the nozzle, Vy, is taken as zero at
time t1, then, ( Vy )t 1 = V0 sin α − g t1 = 0 (39) where V0 is the velocity of the stream leaving the nozzle (m/s); α is the angle
of the nozzle; t1 is the time for a drop to travel from the nozzle to the highest
point in the trajectory (s); and g is the ratio of weight to mass (9.81 m/s2)
•
•
•
• Note that the term Vosin α in Eq. 37 is the initial velocity component in the
vertical direction, and the term gt1 is the downward acceleration over time t1
The above equation can be solved for t1
The initial velocity, V0, can be calculated based on the sprinkler discharge
and the nozzle diameter
Values of α can be found from manufacturers’ information Merkley & Allen Page 36 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures •
• Now, what is the highest point in the trajectory?
First, solve for t1 in the previous equation: t1 = Vo sin α
g (40) then,
2
2
g t1 V0 sin2 α
h1 = V0 sin α t1 −
=
2
2g • (41) Assuming no acceleration in the horizontal direction, x1 = V0 cos α t1 (42) gt 2
h2 = hr + h1 = Vy t 2 + 2
2 (43) solving for h2, • where hr is the riser height (m); t2 is the time for a drop of water to travel from
the highest point in the trajectory to impact on the ground; and Vy = 0
Then, x2 is defined as: x 2 = V0 cos α t 2 = V0 cos α 2 (hr + h1 )
g (44) And, the approximate wetted radius of the sprinkler is: R j = x1 + x 2
• (45) In summary, if air resistance is ignored and the sprinkler riser is truly vertical,
the theoretical value of Rj is a function of:
1. Angle, α
2. Nozzle velocity (qa/A)
3. Riser height, hr • And, qa is a function of P Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 37 Merkley & Allen Merkley & Allen Page 38 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ...
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