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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 4 Set Sprinkler Uniformity & Efficiency
I. Sprinkler Irrigation Efficiency
1. Application uniformity
2. Losses (deep percolation, evaporation, runoff, wind drift, etc.)
•
•
• •
• It is not enough to have uniform application if the average depth is not
enough to refill the root zone to field capacity
Similarly, it is not enough to have a correct average application depth if the
uniformity is poor
Consider the following examples: We can design a sprinkler system that is capable of providing good
application uniformity, but depth of application is a function of the set time (in
periodicmove systems) or “on time” (in fixed systems)
Thus, uniformity is mainly a function of design and subsequent system
maintenance, but application depth is a function of management Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 39 Merkley & Allen II. Quantitative Measures of Uniformity
Distribution uniformity, DU (Eq. 6.1): ⎛ avg depth of low quarter ⎞
DU = 100 ⎜
⎟
avg depth
⎝
⎠
• • (46) The average of the low quarter is obtained by measuring application from a
catchcan test, mathematically overlapping the data (if necessary), ranking
the values by magnitude, and taking the average of the values from the low
¼ of all values
For example, if there are 60 values, the low quarter would consist of the 15
values with the lowest “catches” Christiansen Coefficient of Uniformity, CU (Eq. 6.2): ( n
⎛
∑ j=1abs z j − m
CU = 100 ⎜ 1.0 −
n
⎜
⎜
∑ j=1z j
⎝ ⎞
)⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠ (47) where z are the individual catchcan values (volumes or depths); n is the
number of observations; and m is the average of all catch volumes.
•
•
•
•
• Note that CU can be negative if the distribution is very poor
There are other, equivalent ways to write the equation
These two measures of uniformity (CU & DU) date back to the time of slide
rules (more than 50 years ago; no electronic calculators), and are designed
with computational ease in mind
More complex statistical analyses can be performed, but these values have
remained useful in design and evaluation of sprinkler systems
For CU > 70% the data usually conform to a normal distribution, symmetrical
about the mean value. Then, ⎛ avg depth of low half ⎞
CU ≈ 100 ⎜
⎟
avg depth
⎝
⎠ (48) another way to define CU is through the standard deviation of the values, ⎛
σ 2⎞
CU = 100 ⎜ 1.0 −
⎟
⎜
⎟
m π⎠
⎝
Merkley & Allen Page 40 (49) Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures where σ is the standard deviation of all values, and a normal distribution is
assumed (as previously)
•
• Note that CU = 100% for σ = 0
The above equation assumes a normal distribution of the depth values,
whereby: ∑ z − m = nσ
•
• 2/ π (50) By the way, the ratio σ/m is known in statistics as the coefficient of variation
Following is the approximate relationship between CU and DU: CU ≈ 100 − 0.63 (100 − DU)
or, •
•
• • (51) DU ≈ 100 − 1.59 (100 − CU) (52) These equations are used in evaluations of sprinkler systems for both design
and operation
Typically, 85 to 90% is the practical upper limit on DU for set systems
DU > 65% and CU > 78% is considered to be the minimum acceptable
performance level for an economic system design; so, you would not
normally design a system for a CU < 78%, unless the objective is simply to
“get rid of water or effluent” (which is sometimes the case)
For shallowrooted, high value crops, you may want to use DU > 76% and
CU > 85% III. Alternate Sets (PeriodicMove Systems)
•
•
• The effective uniformity (over multiple irrigations) increases if “alternate sets”
are used for periodicmove systems (½Sl)
This is usually practiced by placing laterals halfway between the positions
from the previous irrigation, alternating each time
The relationship is: CUa ≈ 10 CU (53) DUa ≈ 10 DU
•
•
• The above are also valid for “double” alternate sets (Sl/3)
Use of alternate sets is a good management practice for periodicmove
systems
The use of alternate sets approaches an Sl of zero, which simulates a
continuousmove system Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 41 Merkley & Allen IV. Uniformity Problems
•
• Of the various causes of nonuniform sprinkler application, some tend to
cancel out with time (multiple irrigations) and others tend to concentrate (get
worse)
In other words, the “composite” CU for two or more irrigations may be (but
not necessarily) greater than the CU for a single irrigation 1. Factors that tend to Cancel Out
•
•
•
• Variations in sprinkler rotation speed
Variations in sprinkler discharge due to wear
Variations in riser angle (especially with handmove systems)
Variations in lateral set time 2. Factors that may both Cancel Out and Concentrate
• Nonuniform aerial distribution of water between sprinklers 3. Factors that tend to Concentrate
•
•
• Variations in sprinkler discharge due to elevation and head loss
Surface ponding and runoff
Edge effects at field boundaries V. System Uniformity
• The uniformity is usually less when the entire sprinkler system is considered,
because there tends to be greater pressure variation in the system than at
any given lateral position. ( ) ( ) ⎡1
⎤
system CU ≈ CU ⎢ 1 + Pn / Pa ⎥
⎣2
⎦
⎡1
⎤
system DU ≈ DU ⎢ 1 + 3 Pn / Pa ⎥
⎣4
⎦ (54) (55) where Pn is the minimum sprinkler pressure in the whole field; and Pa is the
average sprinkler pressure in the entire system, over the field area.
•
•
• These equations can be used in design and evaluation
Note that when Pn = Pa (no pressure variation) the system CU equals the CU
If pressure regulators are used at each sprinkler, the system CU is
approximately equal to 0.95CU (same for DU) Merkley & Allen Page 42 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures •
• If flexible orifice nozzles are used, calculate system CU as 0.90CU (same for
DU)
The Pa for a system can often be estimated as a weighted average of Pn &
Px: Pa = 2Pn + Px
3 (56) where Px is the maximum nozzle pressure in the system VI. Computer Software and Standards
•
•
•
• There is a computer program called “Catch3D” that performs uniformity
calculations on sprinkler catchcan data and can show the results graphically
Jack Keller and John Merriam (1978) published a handbook on the
evaluation of irrigation systems, and this includes simple procedures for
evaluating the performance of sprinkler systems
The ASAE S436 (Sep 92) is a detailed standard for determining the
application uniformity under center pivots (not a set sprinkler system, but a
continuous move system)
ASAE S398.1 provides a description of various types of information that can
be collected during an evaluation of a set sprinkler system Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 43 Merkley & Allen VII. General Sprinkle Application Efficiency
The following material leads up to the development of a general sprinkle
application efficiency term (Eq. 6.9) as follows:
Design Efficiency: Epa = DEpaReOe (57) where DEpa is the distribution efficiency (%); Re is the fraction of applied
water that reaches the soil surface; and Oe is the fraction of water that does
not leak from the system pipes.
•
•
• • The design efficiency, Epa, is used to determine gross application depth (for
design purposes), given the net application depth
In most designs, it is not possible to do a catchcan test and data analysis –
you have to install the system in the field first; thus, use the “design
efficiency”
The subscript “pa” represents the “percent area” of the field that is
adequately irrigated (to dn, or greater) – for example, E80 and DE80 are the
application and distribution efficiencies when 80% of the field is adequately
irrigated
Question: can “pa” be less than 50%? Merkley & Allen Page 44 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Relative Applied Depth C U 20% of area underirrigated
80% of area overirrigated w
Lo h
Hig CU Desired Net Application Depth 1.0 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Area Receiving at Least the Desired Application VIII. Distribution Efficiency
•
•
• CU
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
70 • This is used to define the uniformity and adequacy of irrigation
DE is based on statistical distributions and application uniformity
For a given uniformity (CU) and a given percent of land adequately irrigated
(equal to or greater than required application depth), Table 6.2 gives values
of DE that determine how much water must be applied in excess of the
required depth so that the given percent of land really does receive at least
the required depth
95
87.6
83.5
79.4
75.3
71.1
67.0
62.9
58.8
54.6
50.5
46.4
42.3
38.1 90
90.4
87.1
83.9
80.7
77.5
74.3
71.1
67.9
64.7
61.4
58.2
55.0
51.8 85
92.2
89.6
87.0
84.4
81.8
79.2
76.6
74.0
71.4
68.8
66.2
63.6
61.0 Percent area adequately irrigated (pa)
80
75
70
65
93.7
94.9
96.1
97.1
91.6
93.2
94.7
96.1
89.4
91.5
93.4
95.2
87.3
89.8
92.1
94.2
85.2
88.2
90.8
93.2
83.1
86.5
89.5
92.3
81.0
84.8
88.2
91.3
78.9
83.1
86.8
90.3
76.8
81.4
85.5
89.4
74.7
79.7
84.2
88.4
72.6
78.0
82.9
87.4
70.4
76.3
81.6
86.5
68.3
74.6
80.3
85.5 60
98.1
97.5
96.8
96.2
95.6
94.9
94.3
93.6
93.0
92.4
91.7
91.1
90.5 55
99.1
98.7
98.4
98.1
97.8
97.5
97.2
96.8
96.5
96.2
95.9
95.6
95.3 50
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0 See Fig. 6.7 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 45 Merkley & Allen IX. Wind Drift and Evaporation Losses
•
•
• These losses are typically from 5% to 10%, but can be higher when the air is
dry, there is a lot of wind, and the water droplets are small
Effective portion of the applied water, Re. This is defined as the percentage
of applied water that actually arrives at the soil surface of the irrigated field.
This is based on:
•
•
• •
• climatic conditions
wind speed
spray coarseness Figure 6.8 gives the value of Re for these different factors
The Coarseness Index, CI, is defined as (Eq. 6.7): ⎛ P1.3 ⎞
CI = 0.032 ⎜
⎜B⎟
⎟
⎝
⎠ (58) where P is the nozzle pressure (kPa) and B is the nozzle diameter (mm)
CI > 17
fine spray
• CI < 7
coarse spray When the spray is between fine and coarse, Re is computed as a weighted
average of (Re)fine and (Re)coarse (Eq. 6.8): Re =
• 17 ≥ CI ≥ 7
between fine and coarse (CI − 7)
(17 − CI)
(Re )fine +
(Re )coarse
10
10 (59) Allen and Fisher (1988) developed a regression equation to fit the curves in
Fig. 6.8:
2
Re = 0.976 + 0.005 ETo − 0.00017 ETo + 0.0012 W −0.00043 (CI) (ETo ) − 0.00018 (CI) ( W ) (60) −0.000016 (CI) (ETo ) ( W ) • where ETo is the reference ET in mm/day (grassbased); CI is the
coarseness index (7 ≤ CI ≤ 17); and W is the wind speed in km/hr
For the above equation, if CI < 7 then set it equal to 7; if CI > 17 then set it
equal to 17 Merkley & Allen Page 46 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures X. Leaks and Drainage Losses
1. Losses due to drainage of the system after shutdown
•
•
• upon shutdown, most sprinkler systems will partially drain
water runs down to the low elevations and or leaves through
automatic drain valves that open when pressure drops
fixed (solidset) systems can have antidrain valves at sprinklers that
close when pressure drops (instead of opening, like on wheel lines) 2. Losses due to leaky fittings, valves, and pipes
•
•
•
•
• pipes and valves become damaged with handling, especially with
handmove and sideroll systems, but also with orchard sprinklers and
endtow sprinklers
gaskets and seals become inflexible and fail These losses are quantified in the Oe term
For systems in good condition these losses may be only 1% or 2%, giving an
Oe value of 99% or 98%, respectively
For system in poor condition these losses can be 10% or higher, giving an Oe
value of 90% or less XI. General Sprinkle Application Efficiency
• As given above, Eq. 6.9 from the textbook, it is: Epa = DEpaReOe (61) where DEpa is in percent; and Re and Oe are in fraction (0 to 1.0). Thus, Epa
is in percent.
XII. Using CU or DU instead of DEpa
1. Application Efficiency of the Low Quarter, Eq
• Given by Eq. 6.9 when DU replaces DEpa
• Useful for design purposes for medium to highvalue crops
• Only about 10% of the area will be underirrigated
• Recall that DU is the average of low quarter divided by average
2. Application Efficiency of the Low Half, Eh
•
• Given by Eq. 6.9 when CU replaces DEpa
Useful for design purposes for lowvalue and forage crops Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 47 Merkley & Allen •
• Only about 20% of the area will be underirrigated
Recall that CU is the average of low half divided by average XIII. Procedure to Determine CU, Required Pressure, Se and Sl for a Set
System
1. Specify the minimum acceptable Epa and target pa
2. Estimate Re and Oe (these are often approximately 0.95 and 0.99,
respectively)
3. Compute DEpa from Epa, Re and Oe
4. Using DEpa and pa, determine the CU (Table 6.2) that is required to achieve
Epa
5. Compute the set operating time, tso, then adjust f’ and dn so that tso is an
appropriate number of hours
6. Compute qa based on I, Se and Sl (Eq. 5.5)
7. Search for nozzle size, application rate, Se and Sl to obtain the CU
8. Repeat steps 5, 6 and 7 as necessary until a workable solution is found
XIV. How to Measure Re
•
• The textbook suggests a procedure for estimating Re
You can also measure Re from sprinkler catchcan data:
1. Compute the average catch depth over the wetted area (if a single
sprinkler), or in the area between four adjacent sprinklers (if in a
rectangular grid)
2. Multiply the sprinkler flow rate by the total irrigation time to get the volume
applied, then divide by the wetted area to obtain the gross average
application depth
3. Divide the two values to determine the effective portion of the applied
water XV. Line and PointSource Sprinklers
•
•
•
• Linesource sprinklers are sometimes used by researches to determine the
effects of varying water application on crop growth and yield
A linesource sprinkler system consists of sprinklers spaced evenly along a
straight lateral pipe in which the application rate varies linearly with distance
away from the lateral pipe, orthogonally
Thus, a linesource sprinkler system applies the most water at the lateral
pipe, decreasing linearly to zero to either side of the lateral pipe
A pointsource sprinkler is a single sprinkler that gives linearlyvarying
application rate with radial distance from the sprinkler Merkley & Allen Page 48 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures • With a pointsource sprinkler, the contours of equal application rate are
concentric circles, centered at the sprinkler location (assuming the riser is
vertical and there is no wind) Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 49 Merkley & Allen Merkley & Allen Page 50 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course BIE 6110 taught by Professor Sprinkle during the Fall '03 term at Utah State University.
 Fall '03
 Sprinkle

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