Unformatted text preview: Lecture 5 Layout of Laterals for Set Sprinklers
I. Selecting Sprinkler Discharge, Spacing, and Pressure
• In Chapter 6 of the textbook there are several tables that provide guidelines
for nozzle sizes for different:
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• Wind conditions
Application rates
Sprinkler spacings • For selected values of wind, application rate, and spacing, the tables provide
recommended nozzle sizes for single and doublenozzle sprinklers,
recommended sprinkler pressure, and approximate uniformity (CU) •
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• Table values are for standard (nonflexible) nozzles
Table values are for standard sprinkler and lateral spacings
More specific information can be obtained from manufacturers’ data • Recall that the maximum application rate is a function of soil texture, soil
structure, and topography (Table 5.4)
For a given spacing and application rate, the sprinkler discharge, qa, can be
determined from Eq. 5.5 • qa = I ( SeSl )
d S SO
= nele
3600
3600 EpaSto (62) where qa is in lps; I is in mm/hr; dn is in mm; Sto is the operating time for each
set, in hours; and Sl and Se are in m
• Why is the Oe term included in the above equation? (because Epa includes
Oe, as previously defined, and must be cancelled out when considering an
individual sprinkler) II. Number of Operating Sprinklers
• After calculating the system capacity and the design flow rate for sprinklers,
the number of sprinklers that will operate at the same time is: Nn =
Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Qs
qa (63) Page 51 Merkley & Allen where Nn is the minimum number of sprinklers operating, and Qs and qa have
the same units
• • It is recommendable to always operate the same number of sprinklers when
the system is running. This practice can help avoid the need for pressure
regulation, and can avoid uniformity problems. It can also help avoid wasting
energy at the pump.
For oddshaped fields, and sometimes for rectangular fields, it is not possible
to operate the same number of sprinklers for all sets. In this case, pressure
regulation may be necessary, or other steps can be taken (multiple pumps,
variablespeed motor, variable application rates). III. Lateral Design Criteria
• Lateral pressure varies from inlet to extreme end due to:
1. friction loss
2. elevation change • The fundamental basis upon which sprinkler laterals are designed is:
“pressure head variation in the lateral should not exceed
20% of the average design pressure for the sprinklers” •
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• This is a design assumption that has been used for many years, and is
based on a great deal of experience
The 20% for pressure variation is not an “exact” value; rather, it is based on
judgment and some cost comparisons
A designer could change this value, but it would affect system performance
(uniformity), initial system cost, operating cost, and possibly other factors
Computer programs could be written to search for an “optimal” percent
pressure variation according to initial and operating costs, and according to
crop value  such an “optimal” value would vary from system to system IV. Sprinkler Lateral Orientation
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• • It is usually preferable to run laterals on contours (zero slope) so that
pressure variation in the lateral pipes is due to friction loss only
It is advantageous to run laterals downhill, if possible, because the gain in
energy due to elevation change will allow longer laterals without violating the
20% rule. But, if the slope is too steep, pressure regulators or flow control
nozzles may be desirable.
If the ground slope is equal to the friction loss gradient, the pressure in the
lateral will be constant. However, the friction loss gradient is nonlinear
because the flow rate is decreasing with distance along the lateral. Merkley & Allen Page 52 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 53 Merkley & Allen • It is usually not recommendable to run laterals in an uphill direction. In this
case:
1. both friction loss and elevation are working to reduce pressure toward
the end of the lateral, and length is more restricted if the 20% rule is
still used
2. However, for small slopes, running laterals uphill may be required to
reduce the total length of the mainline pipe • • • Note that V2/2g in the lateral pipe is normally converted into total head as the
water flows through the nozzle body. Therefore, the velocity head (and EL)
should normally be considered in lateral design. However, since a portion of
the velocity head is lost during deceleration of the water at the entrance into
risers and as turbulence inside the sprinkler head, and since V2/2g in a
lateral pipe is typically small (< 1 ft of head, or 0.2 psi, or 0.3 m head, or 3
kPa), it is normally neglected during design, and the HGL is used.
Aside from limits on pressure variation, laterals should be oriented so that
they move in the direction of the prevailing winds  this is because of salinity
problems and application uniformity
Figure 7.1 gives examples of layouts on different topographies V. Lateral Sizing Limitations
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• lateral pipes can be designed with multiple diameters to accommodate
desirable pressure distributions, but...
handmove laterals should have only one or two different pipe sizes to
simplify handling during set changes
in practice, handmove systems and wheel lines usually have only one size
of lateral pipe
some wheel lines, greater than 400 m in length, may have 5inch pipe near
the inlet and then 4inch pipe at the end Layout of Mainline for Set Sprinklers
I. Mainline Layout and Sizing
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• if possible, run the mainline up or down slope so the laterals can be on
contours (lateral pressure variation due to friction loss only)
can also run the mainline along a ridge so the laterals run downhill on both
sides (lateral friction loss partially offset by elevation change)
should consider possible future expansions when sizing the mainline Merkley & Allen Page 54 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures “SplitLine” Lateral Operation:
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• laterals operate on both sides of the mainline
the mainline can be sized for only half capacity halfway down the mainline if
laterals are run in different directions
sometimes interferes with cultural practices
it is convenient to have the water supply in the center of one side of the field,
but this is seldom a design variable (the well is already there, or the canal is
already there)
may not need pumping if the water supply is at a higher elevation than the
field elevation (e.g. 50 psi = 115 ft or 35 m of head)  when pumping is not
required, this changes the mainline layout and pipe sizing strategy
in some cases it will be justifiable to include one or more booster pumps in
the design  even when the water source is a well (the well pump may not
provide enough pressure for any of the lateral settings)
we will discuss mainline economics in the next few lectures, then we will look
at mainline design in more detail later II. Design Variables to Accommodate Layout
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• Number of sprinklers operating
Average application rate
Gross application depth
Average sprinkler discharge
Sprinkler spacing
Operating hours per day
Irrigation frequency
Total operating time (fT)
System capacity
Percent probability of rain during peakuse period
MAD It may be necessary to adjust the layout if a suitable combination of the
above variables cannot be found
Can also use flow control nozzles or pressure regulators to accommodate a
given layout III. Sample Calculation
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• Consider a periodicmove system with Sl = 50 ft, Se = 40 ft, f = 8 days, T =
11.5 hrs @ 2 sets/day, d = 2.7”, and qa = 4.78 gpm
The field size is 80 acres (½ of a “quarter section”), 2,640 ft on one side and
1,320 ft on the other, rectangular
The laterals will have to be 1,320ft long Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 55 Merkley & Allen • System capacity: Qs =
• 453 (80 ac )(2.7 inch)
= 532 gpm
(8 days)(2 sets / day )(11.5 hrs / set ) Number of sprinklers operating: Ns =
• (64) Q s 5 32
=
= 111 sprinklers
qa 4.78 (65) Number of laterals, 1320 ft / lateral
= 33 sprinklers / lateral
40 ft / sprinkler (66) 111 sprinklers
= 3.36 laterals
33 sprinklers / lateral (67) ...so, round up to 4 laterals • Thus, two laterals on each side of the mainline (symmetry) 1320 ft per lateral pair
= 26.4
50 ft / position
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• (68) Round this up from 26.4 to 27 positions per lateral pair
This gives 2 x 27 = 54 total lateral positions, and 54/4 = 13.5 sets/lateral
Use 13 sets for two laterals and 14 sets for the other two laterals
Then, there will be 14 sets per irrigation, even though the last set will only
have two laterals operating Merkley & Allen Page 56 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures • Adjusted irrigation frequency: f= 14 sets
= 7 days
2 sets / day (69) •
• Note that the value of f was for an 8day interval
Thus, we need to increase Qs to complete the irrigation in less time • Adjusted system capacity: Qs = ( 4 laterals)(33 sprinklers / lateral)( 4.78 gpm / sprinkler )
= 631 gpm
• Another way to adjust the system capacity: ⎛ 8 days ⎞
Qs = ⎜
⎟ (532 gpm) = 608 gpm
⎝ 7 days ⎠
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• (70) (71) You might say that we are “effectively” finishing in somewhat less than 7
days, because the last set has only two laterals in operation, giving a system
capacity of 608 instead of 631
Consider this calculation: there are 2 x 13 + 2 x 14 = 54 sets, but the last 2
sets have only 2 laterals. So, (52/54) x 631 = 608 gpm, as calculated above.
Which is correct?
There are (52/54)*(4 laterals) = 3.85 laterals operating on average during
each irrigation of the field
However, you cannot always base the system capacity on the average
number of laterals operating
The system capacity should be based on the “worst case”, which is when all
four laterals operate simultaneously
This means that the required capacity is 631 gpm, not 608 gpm
Note that many farmers will accept some increase in system capital cost to
provide more operational flexibility and safety
In summary, we have essentially lowered f to accommodate the system
configuration (layout), but:
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• same gross depth
same number of hours per set
same sprinkler flow rate
same sprinkler spacing
increased system capacity Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures Page 57 Merkley & Allen Pipeline Hydraulics
I. Review
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• Read Chapter 8 of the textbook to review the hydraulics of pipelines
For pipe friction loss we will be using the HazenWilliams and DarcyWeisbach equations
Be familiar with the Moody diagram, for use with the DarcyWeisbach
equation
You can use the SwameeJain equation instead of the Moody diagram: f= 0.25
⎡
⎛ε
5.74 ⎞ ⎤
+ 0.9 ⎟ ⎥
⎢log10 ⎜
⎝ 3.75 D NR ⎠ ⎦
⎣ 2 (72) which is valid for turbulent flow in the range: 4,000 ≤ NR ≤ 1.0(10)8. The ratio
ε/D is called “relative roughness.” The roughness height, ε, varies widely
• We will also use the Blasius equation (Eq. 8.6) to determine the value of “f,”
in some cases, for “smooth pipes” Merkley & Allen Page 58 Sprinkle & Trickle Irrigation Lectures ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2012 for the course BIE 6110 taught by Professor Sprinkle during the Fall '03 term at Utah State University.
 Fall '03
 Sprinkle

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